O "讻 裋 AF E


Fifty Years of the Fourth International

裋 AF ݇

1. 1938 K 裋 A G ܬ ˟ H OOœ C "讬 b 죈 M F TF 裇A. ܬ M  裋 A􈶂 O, N F FF򈶂 F C F EF, M 膴 C C ⶾ A. ܬ gFJ N A "讂 FJ 裇A. ޶ ꘄꂰ ܊ 򣰋. ޡP N C, N O N F 裆裴, M, MF M 躮FA. vLQv, F, ܪK ...-C... (AFL-CIO) O F F ޶ N Fœ O F hv M J ꌶ FA. ެ 裮 NO 自F FH 裇A. v N 嚪  ޫ . MF F O F 裂 A, N F Y辋, O "J A e  ꌶ A.

2. ܬ N K 裆 裴 A. O F H𣂰  F I辋 ܈FC ‹ A. މ F , O F Q ޼A, ܶ O 콂 F b E ܮ 輈 F GKA. O F ꌻ O FF 쉶 ޙ 裪춾 A.

3. މ ''M'' G蛾𣂰 AO F ꣃ N FK J N F 嚪 F HFLA. 裘M J W vLQ F ޡ ܂ CJ O K M Mꈬ EM OF 効補A. 裘M 裇 ٘ Qv C, C O CLœ ެH ̘F ꌶ 補 H 𴈶A. ܬ񊹂 񆮙, YF OF , ܬ '' F GK HFLA. L C '' 嶂A O ܮE F GF 񣘂CF F F, ޡ 'F , c, ܈FC N A A. ܫ E H옉 N F N꣬O O hv ܊ NA. O L A E N 裊 ޼F 𣘂, N ܉ K ꌻ 𣼆 O 舶 ެ퉶 O A.

4. 裋 A P FF YK މ ܿA  F 冴EO 裆裴 C Fh ޼A. N F F L C C 裋 A 膮 ⿊F HA. J O ܬH  "J N F e F F, C "讬 b vAJ F KF F ފ𣿶 K A.

5. vA 裋 A ܬ ܬ M ޼ A ޼ iCP - 죋 A 1914 ͡ A 1933 - ޶ 1847 Qv P F SM 1917 ݆CF C 蘂 M  . 躋  H vLQ꺋 FFF J ꘉ. P 裆裴 N F I H M 裴 ޼. FFF މ ޼ COœ vLQF M캮 . O LꊹCJ F숬 GK 𣿶, M C H gF ܮ 裇 vLQ, 1917  CͅC F  FC . ޶ ܂ CJ P gF 𣌬F SMO O ͮ. QQ C N., J 񣘂Cv 裬 .

6. wO FK vA 񣘂CF T  'Q L' H𣂰 C FF F LꊹC A E. SM C e vLQ FF P M C O FCJ 숬 HFGF M gFJ ⴈ 裆. N C 1917 ܂ CJ 裂 𣼆 , F C C ɂA i C . ދ A J, vA AOQ T.H. H 񆴋 ܙ, M QO FJ ܬ C G P裇 F 𣂰 F J. vA FL 񣘂C CL ꣈F, ܙ ꣈F ܮ 裇M , ܬ O F E M gFJ K 補 ܮ 裇 LF.  CO cF F ޡ c ܮ 񆴫 ܶ H .

7. މ TA ޼A. M F L ܂ ܿ GKA. FFF F ܬ  ܶ 󋹂 F PL  J F, ܂ CJ P NF F O HA. M Qœ O O C 𴈶A. M Q N J 裋 A 膮 ܬF A. ܂ C F숬, vA 񆴫 HFGF A ‹ MF ܊. M 舶 N F, 冴E FF ެJ I P 숬 ܬ쉶. C GJ ܬ ܈FC - ܬ  F C gF "讬 - O ݆C F, ޼ G 補 ݆C A GJ ޼ ެ M Q‚ I CA. މ "JL e CJ M O P 辋 M Q‚ O c (Expansion) 裘M 補 , SM CJ H P C ꣈ FI 補 ܄A. 裘M v FF , FI F ܮ M N F C F F N.

8. N 裇 ݆CJ J O F AJ F O 裰. M Q‚ މ 𣂰 . FJ vLQꈬ, ↮ H. v GK, L G , vL 裬 SM M Q‚ F  効補, 裘M , śC ޼H‹ PL vLQ FF e 般 F. vAꈶ 񣘂Cꈶ F FF K H ݻ ܬ 𣌊 ܋ FH. M Q‚  C " vLQ F ꣾE ܮ , ܶ 裋 AF 裊 PP򣰋. , 裋 A M N F C 裊 .

Internationalism and the Proletariat

C, O 躋.

9. 裋 AF 裊 ܘ𴈶 O EJ C CF J򣰋. J vLQF YF FF ", C C ܮ 裇 FO F G ⴈ 裆A. ܶ MF N 般 嚪  O F FFF W𴈶A. 1914 芫 FL 񣘂CvO F F辋 H vLQv F辋 J W 옉. F ݇ vLQ F 񂰜 ܮ MM *͡ AF F P MF vA H F;

10. '' 裊F - މ FF 裊F - , C GFF FF W GJ, Qv C 辋, H辋 ꣉ œ GO, 𣂰O CO ޼ H F숬 vH ...1914 -v 4 FF ܬ C F ꣾE ܮ. O F C C  裊F, OF F C, iC 裇 裊F  옹 C F 𣿶 C FO 冴 ܙ P 𣶈O 弃A튫 ܙ. F, C ܬ 裇辋 GO 𣂰O P ܬ 옹 Q F v gF P A G P ݌ML H .  裊F M I F M O F C ܵ ܵ JL ៪ ; ៪ , F ܙ. ރ Q CF C LF ܬ ެJ ܮ H ޼A.''

11. O ܬ񊹂 숶 F ͫ ܄ ޼, L CJ C 裋 AF ܬ 膴. މ F F ܮ vAJ GC FQ . ܶ LꊹC P M 񣰋. ܶ C HA  ܫ MQQ ༂ N O (Y, M, A ..) OO A. ܬ M ܮ 裇 C C M gF O FJ  P, O "J K P ܬ O ‹  P K 혉 補F.

12. G gF N F A, I辋 ݛ A O A.  Æ QO H C O FJ ̫gF  𣶋 ޙ M N F補 G  E. OO C AJ ꉬJ FF 산 𣆮, ''꣉'' O N F e A𴈶 , I J M 򙺬 O裆A. N F F   ͘𴈶F GA.

13. c 񣘂CF ܮ ß, , F 񆴫 C gF F ܶ gF ޼. O CJ F O F  ⴂ. N F I ܮ gF gFJ 弃A A. J ܮ gF Q,  Æ Q ̘F 숬 F   ꘉ NO F A. ܈ ܬ F F O, O N꣬AJ F MGA A. 𣘆 v裘 (Ford Escort) H L F A H- HKQ 裘, ⇪ , CL 𣙆- TF Y- iQ v Av (Hose Clamps)- 񣘂A 𙆴- ވLJ OcA - Q (Alternators) ݙv- ܪKM .T.ݘ. ,  F 裇A. ޚ 𣶋 ޙ F O N F ܬ C F FA, H裂A. ܊ C F, N F '''' Q 裴 制 ܮ 裇, ꉬJ '''' O O G𣆬 𴈶 NO K A A.

14. O FJ , H FF AJ C H gFJ ØF. ޶ e 强 G gF F C gF O ϡP ޼ C ެJ 𣆬 E 裇 . F O F  O '''' M 裇, ވ  , g般 J K C ܬ ALJL MMî F ݂A.

15. މ ܮ O  ꘉ F F 캋, gFJ O 般 O ܬ񊹂 F EF󆴋 裇 ͫ ޼ 񆴫 N F G , ¬ F M‹ K . O F މ C A O , C C 膴 ܬ򺮻. ꣊ C C O M ފ C 񆴫 ޼ A. ܶ L vA 1938 ܬ 裋 A񣰋. ܶ ޡ ܬ M NA.

The Capitalist Crisis and the Proletarian Leadership

O "讻 O F

16. OF c gF ", ޡ H gF CA 裇A. ޶ gF F , ܪK A ܬ FF O C G . N F, C E މ "J K, gF A 񊹂 󣌉 K補 .

17. 裋 AF v F vA 옹 H . މ 裊 FFF MA. ܫ Q F " F N F C " LF. HJ OF ݟ b O  P G gF, gF E𣰋. HJ AJ, 𣂬 ܮ 裇 މ "J b, F ݌M 𣘂J 裋 A 膴F AJA K.

18. ފ H K  ܬ 񆴫 LA. C 񣘂CF ܬ O bM F, N F J ޼ 補, F P vAF ô 補 GKA.  F vA gF GFî O ܬ FH, O F C F I Fd ꌶ GHA LF. ފ vAF 'GK' M躮 񣘂CF ܮ gF 輈 O GKF A. ފ FF C ܮ PF 裋 AF 'M' , O M HFL ܈ L P ܬ A M񣰋.

19. C H ꣊F O PpM FJ, P C CL ߴ FJ ފ H  I ݄K. މ  臫숬 'N 舶 HKM' (Farewell to the working Class) ‹ F O A A. ފF CK ''O C N 般 E. ޶ F FF W 裇 FA, L G ޙ'' E A.

20. N ܬ M, H P O F J 致H ⴈ CO  ޼F, ܬ N 般 裆裴 L C ܬA. vA 裬 𣿶 J ޼ C 膴J vQ CJ M O 般 I辋 𣼈 J FO.123

21. vA ⿶J, '' gF 𣌬 F A. vQ O M O A. ܶ O C 般 , ܙ ܊ ﲂA CO M. ̋ CJ (Poum) (vQ FF) W O  FL H 補 A. މ J, H CJ AL K M ޡP ެ G CA. ޶ M 弃 F, C, v ܋O ܮJ H F , ܶ 辋 A. މ MF J v죃 M C L  񣘂Cꈬ F F򣰋'' .

22. ܬ ˟ vAJ ݌ ܮJ F. Q F補 gF HO b, N F P F A CͅC O ܙ ޼A. ܶ N 般 C gF EF A, ܙ MMA N Fœ, MOOœ C 𣂰 F  F  ޼A. މ 숬  N F ܮ gF ͫ P K裇 M .

23. 𣼂 HF F P 񣘂C ݌, J M A. , vLQv, F KA 죈F 裆裴, O 般 1930 ݇O ML JH辋 N, 죋  옉 O 躋, Q  M F LL J H . 1930 ݇O M N M P Q, Hv vJQ vLQ O 補O . ެ 죋 芫𣼂 N. 1930 ݇O ̫ gF ML e, 10 裮 O J , H F FO F NF , 弫𣶋 M죶. ޚ  HF 꿬, Q H P . މ N, ܪK FF򈶂 F ܬ. C 裇 H ꉬ ފ . M ܪK , , v죋 𣆴 H N F FE, ܶ FF C 킰 b  F P vLQv 制H AJ.

24. 죋 F H G O G, OF b P. O H MK般 裇죮 裇 𣿫, މ "J F K 裇. A H FF GJL HKQ 숬 K 裇 ܪK OF M GF N, F HF 꿬J ܮ ܬF. 𣼂 HF OF G M, Q ܪK OF CA W .

25. 1944 ݇ H׆v (Bretton- Woods) F ܾv 35 MAF ܪK A. 1930 ݇O ꉬ C 裊 補 e 辋, O ެJ P, ܪKM G GF, A K P G. FF O E , H ܪK O , K O 補, YF 補 補A 裇.

26. 𣼂 H vF GJ ܮ H; ꣘ gF G, A ܪK O F G𣆬 ܮ 裇. ܪK O O O e , ꉬ Jφ쾋 M, Q C ܬ  G񣰋. މ 補J AJ, ꣉ NM M. O ެM ܪK F F 1960O "讬 E. ܶ ܪK FF ܮJ 죋 K H GJ, 쾂 I . ܪKM c  꽈 GJ (Balance of Payments) , ܪK OF G𣆮 YNM GF HFL𣰋. މ"讬 膴 ⴂ 옄C C GH, v 15, 1971 H - ׆v ܬH ܮ, 񣟬 裇 ܪK A N.

27. O ܬH C 裵 G O F ɇ, J O A. 1920OL N F I芪 C 舶 1968 75 ެJ F PH. M N MJO FH ܪK FF 숶 裇 J, H, ܪK N F F  F. P I芪K H HC , Ρ, 1968 G N F I芪 F  PP OF. ܴ O  H 𣶋 ޙ C 裉O ޿.

28. 1960-O ﴊFJL ܪK A , I FO N F I辋 崂 FJK 蘊 ⿄C N 裇, N G O ﴃ H. MI F MJ HEJ C ", 1974 G ꣃ . QJ Æ죆C vHFL  1969 N F F F ݆C 裇 . O ވL '' ެF'' 1969 G ܬJ ݆ . HKQ N gF 膴 K ꣃ ⴈ C, 1926 H I芪 G NO G F 裇. ܶ 1974 F q ꣃ般 T GF. ܫ ݇ 𣘈L, AgC , C F iC . b ܪK LM, CL, ݘM N ݆C ܉  ޼. vFLM 23 L ݆C 裇 M ꣃ般 1972 L 裇. N F ⿄C 𣘂투 HFL. ͡ , C "讻 1975 M (Witlam) O ꈶ 裇.

29. O F C vLQ FF FF W A H  쉶 ޼M. 1968 HA(Prague) ꂫCA e MQQ ݂AI . ꟫ O H N F I H C '裺' ꣃ般 M.

30. H - ׆v ܬH K G i v 71 iC F vF HF M O ܬ C ɂA i ꣈Fß FK. FJ Ø C G 옉 ޼F, ܉ 꿬 A GH. v 15 i  1973 FJ ''⇪ FC'' N. ܊ - v F FJ ⇪ F  (OPEC) ⇪ MO  샰 FK PM. ޶ 1930O ޼ O M F I H ɇM.

31. 心W 裮 ފ O O J H, 1950O 𣘂 M, 죋 K 옉 ނ O vLQ, FO J ⊪𣿶 ܪK A O YN N FF e AJ.  H , H N C L C JL O 般 FF . 1968 HC, 1969 ވLJ, 1971 𣘈, AgC e vJQ 1975-76 vLQv J Qv C O ݆C vF, ݆ F H e G쾋 FJL ܬ . P K 裆裴 CLJ . ܃ 1973 C F N ꣙죘 J O E ꣃ舶 N 般 vLQv .

32. CL N F M FO O, F ܬ FO O ެ ޼. Q ܙ vLQvO 制 ފ C, " O F, FFF I ܮ . މ F C F I K O𣆬 QJ-H󣇮 (Brandts) 𣘈L vR, vJQ 裡꣫J, vFLM- MI (K HCL K ꣉ c般 裇 L FF N 般 싹 ) CLJ ܪJ 補O ⴈ 裆.

Opportunism and the Fourth International

裋 A 

33. vLQv, F N 般 裆 裴 ꣆ J‹ . M ⿊ ; މ F 裋 AF ? ܶ N F vLQvOI FOI HA ⴈ P ކ M?

34. މ M F 1953 ޼ 裋 AF P ݌M AJA. ܊ ݌ 裆 , , 1968 H G  15 O 裋 A ,  CJ, I i.

35. 1951 F ͡ , ܊𣿶 裋 AF ޼ . ܶ vLQF FC  P vAJ ܮ Fd M , F FF YF ‹ O ޼ A ⴂ  ; #A ÆO v L O F F ܮ 裇 F, C ͫ GK HK. F GA C GO GJ  FO N裆, C CO Æ 裋 A 죘. 캬J M , PH  N F F 꽈F C F vLQ, , O C ܙ O bM F 裋 AF F C gF W ܘF. ''ܬ v N CF, ܶ H F ܙ M ޼H‹ Fœ ܶ 嚪 œ O𴈶A 弃A특 ܙ މ Fœ 꽈î A cFœ 弃A C'' LF.

36. 裋 A C gF辋, gF辋 M ܄F މ   變 L N CJ (SWP) ܬ v H. Q CJ ܬ H. 1953 K HKQ HC vAvO OJ A F O ܬ M.

37. F F F G gF M F CJ O裇. C 裬 FKJ 1953 ݇ F, K 1956 w, vLQ C ܋𴈶 ެJ vLQF " 숬 ܬ. ެ򴈶 1956 K C ﲂ M F YF , ܋.  F T F. ‹, L N C 1957 ޼ F 裆 J e ެ F H. މ HMF L N C, O A ܪK O ﴈ FK bMF ܮE, O  G M M춋 vAꈬ gF 裆 裴 ܬ, ܶ F F ܬ M 숬 W.

38. vM¬ O 26 般 L N C 툶, ܬ vAF G̘ HFf HF, AM NO ܬJ PM. ޶ F ެ특 ꌶ A ܬ ކ . v L N C P  ܬ HA O C 򣂰 L C, O F J K. މ G𣆮 F ܮ , HA O O F C F C O FO ޼ G, 裋 AF F ܬ, CJ N F FF J  ޼. ެ튬 GK ܬ M  裈 G HKw H vAv މ 裆裴 F. ܬ肰 裋 A ޼ CP C𣡬 裇. M L, Q H 옉 O  P, N 舶 N M F.

39. ޶ ެ특 F ⴈ裆, 1964 Q F HK C, (LSSP)  E O C ܋K Cl FCJ (SLFP) ÆꣃF . 1953 ܬ ܬ C F, ܬ 옉 F SWP ެ특 KH A. 裋 AF F F 숬 裇 CJ C J J ܬ ܮ vA 裆, GC F A 𣂰 KA GK. މ 裆 裴 F ͮ . 1963 ެ특  ꘈ裇 b HF ; '' HK 1960 SLFP J I O ꣃ舶 O ܵ J FF 裇. 򽂰 AFL, ܶ ÆO F O J EJ GF 補 M.'' K F H LSSP, SLFP J Æꣃ舶 ެ. މ 裆裴 C HF M 裇. ܶ vLQv J CO G F. މ CO C C G C F숬 J O ݆C ɂAi ޼J . މ ܘF CJ 裆 裴, 1965 Qv C J 補O GE މC N F N M O.

40.  J vA N KA NJ ކ , F 裋 AF F N. vLQvO, FO O F P N FL F FF A C F A. ܪKM, M O C F ޙ F GK, F C E P. (L ''C '' ) ܈ N O vLQ, C  F.

41. b ܪKM ެGF F F C  b G. ٘ vLQ, CO MFM i śG vA 舶 N  A. vJꈬ, Qꈬ O CF O bMF F P 蛉. 1970O M AKI O ޼. v 1971 F O M N F M ެG POR- J H 補O F. CLJ FO 補 J, vLQF 裆裴 FO.  ͡ , CL N C G F裇 𣿶 Jv M C O MIR-œ H H F; ''MA , 죋 K H C, O A K 𣘈 F . F F.'' މ ꣟ 1960O O ޼. vAF F M  G A. ݘM 1963- ެH C N裆, M HF M 裇. ܉ F v vA ެ C F F L N裆L W F HKM 蘊 K 𣘈 FO FH. g gF NN. K, Q  HK N J Q캋 O C캋 F ܬ. ܬ HKO 裆裴O ެ F 1976 MM P򣰋.

42. 1968-75 ެJ A O G H N ⿄CJ, 裉OH ݆ 臮, FF J H ꣈FA A , ެGFO  ܶ vLQ, , O C A MJ A. ܶ ެG FFF 죋 C ‹ vAJ Fd T . O MF, O F P FM C ܫ O F F  죘. E 裇 O 1980 ݇ J J v ܂ 補M. F 񆮙, ꣉ 補O G A P M P, CP K 補M. FF, bMFO G PpMO ܬ O  N F C F Æ P ꌶ, M M 補A. , 1964 J, 1968 HC, 1973 CLJ, 1974 Alv 𣘈L K 񣘂C 補J M ޼F P 𣿶 CFM.

43. ܬ 죋 𣼂 HF FJ, O F ͫ gF OL b H 蛉, M C K ܮ 裇A; L CJ C 裋 A 膮 N F P F, , F F .

A Historical Balance Sheet of the Struggle against Opportunism

F F F 킪贊

44. 1953 ݋ ݇ 裋 AFœ F C F ܬ ܬ 𣿶, ''K vAF'' (Orthodox Trotskyism) FF F F  F F 塬  ¬ A vA F ܬ M. ܶ 񣘂CF, F ެJ H F ꣈FI LF. FO  , C 裋 AFœ P ߆J N Fœ vA ̘ C F ޼ N K .

45. C Oœ L N CJ FF 숬 M M, 1953 ݇ HM NL F HC M 􉶬콋 ޡP, 舶 e ެ P L H. މ 裆 gFJ e ެ -޶ 裆 , ܶ F 1953 ⿊ HC P 􉶬 ɂ裶 ﲂ ܮ 裇- ܬ M HKw H󅲊 FO L N CJœ C𣡬J󣽋 F. މ F F 1963 e ެ특 .

46. ܬ肰 ܬ 35 H‹, L N C  ެH 裙˟ H F F 裋 AF F ܮ gF F M P, 킪贊 塬 î ޼A. J F , vAꈶ 心 ⴈ 弪𣿶 M. FO 冴, P vAF, 񣘂CF ܮ 裆 ܈ GK HFGF A. F 裋 A ܬ C ܈F ܬ GK. vLQ FF gF, gF P vAJ ݌ GC  GK. ޡ  b O OF EH ꣈F ޼A.

Pabloism on the Role of Stalinism

vLQF P

47. FO  , M F C ޼A G𴈶 CJ P O 裆. M, v L F, O 舶 F N F , C 𣂰 Q F ܙ . F ܶ 񣘂CF M gF M 輈F, ''O ݆C vLQ '' F 裋 ެJ L 쉶 M. މ F ''G Fœ'' 裋 AF J W FF vLQ ݆C 󇮟 F N 般 C EF ޙ. 裋 ެJ ̫ M , ܉ ''܊ '' FL  K  裇 FL vA , ޼ vLQ COœ 꽈F C M ⶾ ܃  ޼M. vLQ COœ A vAvO 죋 M G GO F, ފ C O FF ݆C ɂAi GF , ޚ ˟ GF ''༂ N '' vH F P.

48. M J މ L A K  ܋F. 輈 ''G F'' ܮ 裇. ܬ ܪK FFF F G 弹 M FF F G 񣰋. ެ 쉶 ꙽ ܪK O 꽈F GJ (Blance of Payments) M F F A M  ⿄CO M H.

49. ޶ '' - C'' F H H P. I A F YF, vLQꈶ ޼ C P 裮 裆 輈 P FH 裆A. vLQF K ޼M, FF򈶂 F C ޼M.  ܶ 옄C A ޼. N F F FF FK ꙽ Æ A ޼A.

50. ޼F 嚪 " F vLQꈶ F 裋 AF A F C F C 𣿶, FF ݟ F, YF G蛾 A F ޡP H F . e e F FF 񣘂CF F ܙ M vA HK C C MG . ޚ 1962 񣘄C vLQ FOœ ÆOOœ A 󣌉 v , H M ݌ ;

51. '' Q 舶 ޡ 산 M C 񣘂Cꈬ J, K F ܶ 裇 O G HKA ܊ HFLA . MF 補K vA G ܈ î ޼A. ޡ މ 𣂰 ⶾ M. vLQ w A. Y GC F A A; A K N O O, C gF MvK ܬ M LA. ΫvM N꣬ G N O O ޼ MA. ވL (O 𣘂 ) C, NF QQ F 􉶬콂 FA; ܙQ K MJ‹ Qv CO K ‹ 裆𣆬컋 ꘄ F  􉶬 b H𴈶A. C 񣘂CF ܮ gF G 񆴋 މ C P KM. ޶ vA F ޼ A; Qv 般 N, 强 F ܮ 裇 C CF 򣰋.'' J ܶ 񆴫!

52. 1963 ެH J ⿶J, vLQ FF YF 𣂰 F ܬ C F ކ ꙽ 裋 A F ޼ H.. ޡ H, Q M躮 ꣉ MFO F A, ܬ A, 裊F 𣼈 QQ FF ܮJ 裇 Qv A A 裇A'' .

53. , ÆO eM vLQꈶ HM e F  J vL¬ F O H P M QQ vLQ N e F P, Q C J ܮ F K투 ⴈFA. N ޼F, C H M, M Q 'YF' î 裊 J M.  , ܶ 芹C , vF, b, O A A.

54. vLQF FO ܮE, vA FF FK GM. ܶ 裋 AF F AO FF T.H.. (GPU ) .T.H. (KGP) ͮ ކ . 1950O FL vA L 죚 裋 AF E HO 裬 vLQ M M F F . 1955 񣘂 TvA P ܋ 옉 죚, 裋 AF ϫ죙 A, T.H. ML OP FF ނvJv A 裙 vLQv , 裴, T. H. M H TvAJ 裋 A M b v F.

55. L vAJ 裬 M , 1975 裋 AF ܬ 裋 A 裊 H. ނ裬 옉 L N C (SWP) J P ݙ 裙  ފ M . ܪK ꣃF F̘ ˟ vO F F O. ܉ v, މ 裬 K T. H. . H O 裆 FL މ M F 臮. vA 舶 F T. H. . P, 裋 AF ܬ肰M F O C, I O O vLQ C Æ M F ܅C.

56. 裫Q (Coyoacan) L vA EK, ܪK L N CJ (SWP) , 1940 裬 C T. H. . F, '' IP KM K'' C 올 F  ܪK ꣃ舶 H 􉶬L ߴ, 裋 AF ܬ肰M M OF ܬ 裆 𣿶, FO F P A. 1940 L N CJ J 裇 H 裴 FH ꣡O ܮJ C ܪK ꣃ舶 Q 옹 P PFM P 裇.

57. 裋 AF ܬ M, 裋 A 裊 œ F ݌ , b O辋 M킰M G, 裋 AF ܬ M ܬ M 𣿶, F F F GK. F, '' '' 臮, H󈶂 . މ J '''' ܬP ܊M L , 1930O 1940O v H. Q Q ޼ CM HO. ފE vLQv FI T. H. . M ޼ OP Jv R 1947 ܋. R O H HO F AJ F, 옉 ܪK ꣃ舶 ެ퉶, T. H. . 膴𣆴 FK ‚ F  P KH ޼F ‹, L N C ''YK'' 옉 蛉. L N CJ v, HOQ ¬ Q ޼ A PM. 1983 C J ꣃ ܪK ꣃF F, L N CJ H (Alan Gelfand)  M, 1954 1958 O HOQ v C OJ.  L N C vLQ O HO 裇죘 , 򿈶 HFO 裆A. ‹, L N C HO M죊H E M ꣡P T. H. . Jv R 裆, Q Q 옹OL A, ܬ肰M މ 躮 G ꣆ ޼F F HO 옉 裈. ޚ 裈, vLQ FFF K 裋 AF F ެ C ޼, FO vA 裆裴H I辋 O 񆴫򣰋.

58. F F vLQ ͮ A F 裋 A vLQFF C OL FFH, FF H C vAJ¬ ݌M 般 FK辋, C 讂辋 裋 AF F F숬 C gFJ N G . FO vA P މ FK F G J ܚ O ܶ GHA. ܬ G JC ܙ. ޡ FJ vLQ " F C F補, FF F F H k 補 ޡP.

The Soviet Union Today

M Q ޡ

59. F YFF c G蛾A F F ܊, v Avv ܉ 죜O J H ݘ A F M 補A. N 般 M Q‚ ܂ C P  , FF FF Æ H gF 𴈶 ޶ HFGF A. F F, ݆C F ܮ GE P補 C 裘M H 補O, ܬ I辋 F辋 辋 OA.

60. vLQ c􈶂 芹C F숬 GK M. N 般 𣼆, FFF F 숶 M Q M 裆 補 C , O 舶 " , 裘 ܂ މ M H GK M죘. M Qv CJ (C.P.S.U.) 27 裃Av, ''F '' c K F̘ GK, F HL ⿋ FFF F C ⿄C P ¬ FFL cA. 1988 OM 補 G , '' ޼ ܬ񊹂AJ މ 裊F bQ 𣂬 Q 裇裶'' M OM ܬ ↫  P. , , K H A OFF 숶 I  A A M LF.

61. 裘 ''v'' L '' ܬ Q F K'' F H H A. މ ꣟, 裘M 補 N숶 O 臫F ܋񣂰A.  N F FE O ޼ M FF MH ޶ 裆A. '' '' HFGF ꌻ ꣈  F 裘 ''ܬ Q F'' Q K Q꣈񂰋 Q ꣈ FC F cAM F A.

62. ꣊ F P C F 꽬 . F K, ޡ M 般 񣂰 𣼆 ܉ F M M A K (Seriously)  񣘂C ܮ GK M. F 躋 F, 1917 ܂K H G F O, ꣈񂰋 C 膴𣆴 N F 𣼆 O J MG  ެ  H퉶. F FF NJ ޙN , މ bM P. F FO HMF, ܈ 숬 ܬ I , O MG般 ܺ , GF 𴈶 M G ܮ컋 Q ޙ . J ܶ GJ, vL - K 裆 'Q L' GHM J.

63. O MG  󈶂 ܊, MF YF ޡ‹ I G 裘 LA. 1917 ݇ L H M O 裆 ݛ M, 𣂰 ꣴ 裘M C H F A. 1988 K 18 M Q Qv CJ F M 'C v' H G蛈F J 裘 ''ޡ C 'F' 옉 AJ '' K. Q F NO FH e ꈬ OJ 裘, ''񆴊𴈶 𣂰 N 膴 HO  ̘ . ޶ K A ,  M񣰋. ܬ , 𴈶 , F e IP O O O C, P NO N F 𴈶A'' A. (M FJL HK 1988 񣘄 31)

64. ''vM'' 般 , 裘M 'AvvF' A b FHM . qL 񣘂CF L, ވ ''CP M P ꆬ  ޙ. 裘 ''C C'' qL F , MH ꣶK GA 裘M, F ''L'' H N F H L PO b  FF Fî 꽬 裇 HKM, PpM K M C N F A򣼂 M F ݰ OA. 裘M A ݫ 솮 vv, FI ܮ 補, N H ͮ CP C. M C N APL î 裇 c ꌶ. ܊E FJ, ''F O 裇F P CI ͫ ޼ C. F K𴈶F G N P ܬ辋 ܂ 裇 k辋, F C HCO ꌻ O 辋 ޼'' A.

65. M MO '' K''  F ܘ ; FK L ႰM J gF, 贬 G 𴈶L ''N 心'' 辋 F F FK 裇 G ܶ ܘ𴈶A. 裘M ޼ A M G CLLQ F; ''(A) J 裇A. ꣙L ܘ F ޼A OI A.  J JA, P F ܬF F  ? ''M QQ 싪 M 󣌉 ܪK O P ''bM YFFO LQ ܙA 輈 M M HO OJ Q ܇J 輈 KM ''GH󹈶, O A 󇴋 CJ 裇 ܙ 裇A. L, ޡ‹  QH I 忂 P HC b M'' A. (, M F YF, S 1988, 293- 294)

66. , ''J񂰊 , 􉶬콂AJA A HC, F G, F I - I辋 " 옹 M- L  Q K P. J 裘M 補, FI N, NJ F N O F 般 N A, gF ܮ GM. ܫ M Qœ, FFO Q , M L G F 裇A.

67. 1988 񣘄C P Æ O e  b G HFGF𴈶A. ''Æ'' Q 裘 ł 񣰋. P  F O I O ႰM. Æ K ''꣈ '' e e F O ''ܶ e'' ܶ ꣈ FH F 裂.'' Æ ''꣉ 膮, ܬ񊹂, F, , 𣂰 F F P , J J, ̘F F 𣼆, ̘F ꌻ ꣈ ꣉ F,'' A. Æ ܬ ''ꣃFI ܙ F HKMKI M F J.'' A.

68. Æ, N L 񘈶 K, ބ A. O  , Æ ''NO , v 𣆮 . , , , F 挾 G, ÆM - MF .'' N J F F , ފ M ÆO, M GF , H M J NO OH (supply) F FIA. މ H𴈶A; '' b躮, (Demned) ޙ CP, ﴈ ꌪ𣼜 ݬ, M, 膮 vO ܮJ C, Æ ܬ... ܬ O ꣈ A ܙ FI Æ .'' N O I F, Æ Q (ܙ MO Fw ܬ컋  혉補 FF, މ 숬 A, e ꣈ ޼P e F 꽈 C Æ 𣘊 .

69. O Æ, 옹 補 F H𴈶A. '' Æ gF 𣆮 Æ, F F M 숶 F.; Æ Æ O E F, F, , K C , F '' ܶ A, ''Æ P Æ O ެ퉶, Æ G C𣂰 P , M ꉬ EOL H FJ , bQ . Æ G މ  ܙ ܬ..... M Æ, P Æ Æ ܬ񊹂O O 贂' F ܉ H A; ''M QQ ܬ, ÆO H, C K F . F e ÆO ̘ ꣈ ܃WK . Æ ႰM .''

70. M Q‚ 산 , O e 裇 ꣈F P MFJ vA LF ܫ 裆C I F J F𴈶A. i Æ O MJO C G Æ O MJO C G Æ O F Æ- M K Q C . N M C G c N‹ (Light Industry) F ꌻ N‹ H ެ F FI 裆, FF Q Æ- MF  N FJ, î ꣈F O- ެJ 옄C .'' (L vA 裆裴 C. GΫ򣘂 Ov, 1973, 253.)

71. 'Avv'' M F H HFGF M. ޡ‹ K , ޶ O F C, ܉vF i𴈶 FFœ, M Fœ, O 𣂰 𴈶 FJ F. ܶ I辋 PH O EJ , 𣆮 FKJ FF 裇 F ꣃ ܬH G ⴂ b񣰋. 1917 ܂K GE M C, N F ެJ H Y މ ''YFF'' ܮ  ݰ. މ YF ''v裬'' ܺ M ޡP 裘 HF ޼A, ܉ 躮 FF 꽬 I FO H 캬 , vv L , O , Q꣈ C 裇 N F W 򣰋. F 裈補 F , 򙺬 ܊ 죶 ޼A. . T. H. J F M. ܈ J CO 裬􂰊 ޡ 裆 M. 裘 - , ꣉ K M ⴂ ≪ C M J  e 裆A.

72. Q꣈ F 裇 gF , J O P M O 般 L ܮ  F ެ ܙ. ¬ 񣂰 G 裆 GA. F, M N F FH  FC NO ﲂA . 裘M 補 O F P F 裇A. F O Q꣈ e P , M AC F𣘂A, 臹 î PP ޙ O 𣘬 ܃WK A. Q 般 ܃WK 1987 1- YF ꣘ gFJ CP ܂ 裇 ''OM󈶬'' (Foreign Affairs) ܄ G FC OJ. v, QA ⃰ C C 񆴫 Q 죂C 憴 ꡲ 裇. OM󈶬 ެP, ''M QQ ޡ F Q GO Q ޼A''. ( 66, .3) F𴈶A.

73. FC v裬 ܺ J, vLQ AJ ܬ ܮ- Q  L GE ܮ 蘉 M, 裘 効補 A GA. J M F G ", ꉬJ O ޼ HL QF ϡP. މ "讬  N 񆴫 . 裘M HK N, N G񣂰, FI 補 GK, O F C 般 M A A ޼A. M Q FF ܬHœ ެ특 . މ FC b Fh F e FFF N GA. FI F H, ܪK, C O 裆 M N 般 C F L MvK 裇A.

74. މ Fh G , M O F vLQ FF  ެ M HFLA. ܂ CJ ܮ e FK , F F N F C F F A. ܇J F ΫvMM 싪 G M QQ 裇 F𣘂 O 񆴫. M QQ SMꈬ ޡ vAF H G ޡ .

75. ܬ , FF " , AvvF L ޼H‹ ܬ - M O FK C E - F 補. ܉E ⊫𣶋 vLQꈶ F c F HO ܮJ 񣘂C M C ꌻ MF N . SMO v O GK M F F 裋 AF 裆𣆴 gF A ܙ 裘 HKM 裇 Fd PMM. MF ފ F ''꣡'' LF vLQ ''O ܂ CJ ݇ MM ޡ 蛉 裇 裘꾂 ܙ, FF " ܮ ޼, FI , Q A ܬ ܘE 裇 M N 舶 A. FF HKOL M N F C F 裂辋, C CJ   ܬ M 𣰋.

76. vLQ FF O N O I꣄O J, ފF M A. A F Y, M R F, C O ܬHœ 弃AF, M Q 裆 F 蘉 裇A. މ G蛾𣂰 YM I辋 P. 𣘬 M ޡ 죶 , KF ܿ  숬 ↮. K K FI F CJ ܬ N AM. 1949 H Æ 裇 G Q ꣈ F. ܈ '' 舶'' ꣃ ႰMH W, O O N 裇A. 蘊 O O G e 膴 ܮ , F N ޼P O C O F MA. 1000 F N 񘈶 Q N꣬ ܃ . 1988 Q OJ F MF O GO î NO E P P.

77. FFF މ Y vLQ C (SEZ) vH. P, N F e 膮 콂 A.  F,  F MK컋 F C PH. 1987- 裃 O 裇 ‚, Y ެJ 58% CJ 1. 5 HL A.  FJ 80 F   Q h ꌶ, 200- F ܉ J ߴ A.

78. OF MK 񣘂CF e M M ‹ ެ퉶. މ F Qv C P OJ 150- ݇ G MM, 臮 A 裇. ''O iC쉶 L 裇A 񣘂, ⃪虲 bK PH , Q ޶ G蛾 TM'' E FK eF ݆H. ޡ‹ A P, vLQv H 補O  ܋񣂰A. E ''F 輈 KMJ, ꣃ '' FA. L '' .

79. ''މ L L'' ܘ Y vLQ FKJ O J P; Q O 補 (employes) ꌻ 𣼆 30 ꣬O ޼ MA. 補 '' F '' FK 効補A. H C, NO F iCJ O죰. N FF FKH 񆴋 P J, i FK A. 1988- FO ܈FC 𣼆O M 24.7% 辋 裌P M 48% 辋 FK.

80. ꣊ F Jꈬ vAꈶ Fh 蛉. 1952 , G H Jv CJ Y vAvO 񙺬f HK辋 M죘. vLQ, O C, M bM AP ޼ A ⴂ M F, O G𣆬 裂 Y vAvO F A, F ݈F ܉ F 񣘂Cv ''CJ F'' A 臮. 1954- F Y O ܬ - - F 𣿶 މ C vAv P HC ⿊ e . Jꈶ ܮE FO  ޡ '' IJ'' 補J ܋A. O e P P ꌶ Y vLQvO 補,  NMœ O , M躮 J O F H ⿄C ކ ꙽. ܴ C ⿄CJ,  FF N쾋, vLQ I O 般 P補 H F, MJO A Y N ޼.

The Theory of Permanent Revolution Vindicated

GC  T

81. vLQF, JF FO ܮE HA O C O ܮE ꘉ. ܂ C, YC (1925- 1927) vQ CJ ܈FC H 裆 F ܙpKM ݘM M M J 嚪 O C  J. C O FI N F C F󈶂 C GK. F GC F 𣌬 F. O F F󈶂 숶 N裆 ͫ GJ ޼, މ F O ܙ F ꣉ ܮEM G𴈶 G P. N 般 F EF GC FF ͫF 裆, F ܶ JJ‹ v, , O CFO ܬ I FF H . v, , '' 񣘂Cv'' N '' vHF P致 , O ݆C ꣉ C C 裇 F H . O F 񣘂v, ⃪v, Q, vA F ܬ C ݆CJ F N F 致H M򈶂O A EM F, N AM ޙ b  N ݆CJ F O  ܈FC i 裶 F.

82. 1963-݋ ݇ ެH , HA O 裋 AF F 膮 ⿊ GK FF ܮ 裇. ܉ 裃AC F G b H ; '' ܿA, O M 𣻜 F補J C MJ FAM O F  Fœ ߘA. K 心軋, C Y 裇 A. ܈ ܿ F N C ܫ ܬ񊹂 e 꽈 ݆C A... HA O FKJ i 񣆬 ݻ‹ ݆C ꣈Fì F MA''.

83. C C 膮 ⿊ F M, F O F C FF GK. ޚ O F , O ެ특 bF O; މO Q A O F H N GO NO ޼M. ݘ M މO J ދI HKM L O C FJ 񆴫 裇. N, 𼉫 M N M e 꽈 ... K MK𴈶 J MJ ꉫF I, 񣘂C 裆𣆮 裆M, I辋 bM b FF Q CJ ݟP.''

84. K F 蛉 LM v M K; ''A  K , 嚪  C  F JH‹, HA O HA. b G HC 裇 M MJ 裇 ܉O, K MJOI F . K ދ AM C vML A ݻ M HC b J ߴ𴈶. O O 躋 蘊 bM O 躋 K ݆ .'' (v , CK, 芹CJ , GΫ򣘂 ܄, 1970, 194 - 195) ܡ CL NO F M K ꌶ裇 vM M K F A 񮈶 ''މ F ݻ AC ͫ A 궃 Y Qv C K F M I.'' (ܫ ˙ 46) P.

85. FO C O KF K補 K ͫF P 킪贊 (Balance Sheet) J. CL, ༰, LM, ݘ O K F 蛉 󣆴 F O FL C F QF. N 舶 C CJ HMF , M O .

86. G C 裆𣆮 裆 裴 ފF, F ܬ O G𣆮 M, FF OF F N F F OQ, LF A QF. F  A ܺ ꌻ 𣼆 vLQvO , A '''' 裆𣆴 Jφ. ꣊ AO F ނ 裆𣆮 L C C 芹C G P O F O C WF.

87. C OF ܮEM GF 裇 ܫJ, F ެH 裃AC, HA O C " J GM ܙ ܟ M ‹ ޙ PH. ''Q, ܬQ O OK i FFF HF ܮ컋 ݰ. bM MC ޙ J FJK c , N ꣘ gFJ K P F F iC, C ܬJ Q ꣘gF ܙ L M ܙ F𣆴 G AM죶. LM 10 ݇ PA , 按 PO A A'' 裙˟ މS, CL, LM, ݪ, 죡- M ( PH C 񆴫) ޡ‹ މ  YF A 裆A.

88. ݇ F 補 GC 裆𣆮 ܮ 裇 P . 1982 F H F 옉 L N C C 裇 A ''G ͚ '' (New Jewel Movement), G ꣇Qv O 裇 F '' QQ AF'' HMF GC 裆 ޼ H . GC 裆𣆬 M L N C, 1917 SMO M, 1920O C򣃫 Æ G𴈶 𣼆, vL Jφ ''N - MJ F'' 輈M ꌶ. vA e މ L ܘ, HK C 裃AC C GJP ܮE L N C bM F  L OA.

89. C O F FO N ܮE - F 죋 𣼂 H O CJ ܄ FF 𣼆, FF ܉ FO 制𣰋 G􂰈 FH HFGF A. 죋 K 옉 C, FA, HK 辋 FFF L F . 40 ݇O H މ ''F F O'' ܮ E ⶾ P ܺ M. vLQF YN ꘉ, HA O O ܮ FF O CF M, Lꈬ ܬ Q 弹I, O F 񣘂CF HMF O F, C F L vAF  P ꣟A.

90. 1947- މF , C O FF Æ C 숬 輄 C ܬJ. މE e e 싪 . ݻ F f Q ݆C ܃, C OF QF H ޙ M. FFF M J K 裇, C  O M M ޼F A. HA O J C AJ 𴈶 , , N gF FI ɇM A. G K H O , 裬 崂.

91. F b O C J HMF ެM죶 F J, C O ꣉ F補, FF F O O F 󇮂 裇. ޶ ܙpK, w, C𣊫, ꣋H O O ⴈ C 񆴫򣰋. Q O , 󣂰 裙 F CJ ކ , YM ܪK FFF F.

92. I ܇ F FF F F F 숶 C OF , H. . , Ij ML GM ꣇Qv죂 O H 裆. vbQ GF F I FK, H𣂰 O F J 𣆴 裇 H. . . , 񟰂 J ެ, N 般 vb O 補 膴F F . F 補 C F FAA O FI FI QF A.

93. ClM I O F I辋 bM HKM HFGF ꌻ M L, G K F F 裇 F . LO C, މF OF e G H ܮ 裇. ޶ މF-  ܃WK 숬 ܬ I ޡ ނ G ކ . L މF F ޡ GJ Ij MLO p裉F e H ޡ‹ H𴈶, މF O F 裆 A. M LO O J HFM, މF O F ͫ F I O H 裆A. Ij M LO G, F H F 裴 CQ . HF; M މFM F ܙ. CM HF J ܉vF G މFM ͫ H  MF F ܙ.  ⊫𣶋 މFM F A . ܚ 옉 򃰫. 𮂬 މFM MJ- C ߆補F 裇 މF - O G裇H,  G މF - F .''

94. މF O F MJ - C M L v죃 i H𣴋 E Kv F G ꣇v죂 ܃WKF FL. ܶ F ܪKM FF FF T ꌻ O e  A. ꣡Qv죂O , K O C ܮEM ܮ GH. ݆C ꣊F H, ꣇Qv죂 CJ M ܮ E PM. GYF MK F ⶾ A  F ޡ Q ޼J L N C G N H A. މ 𮂬 ꣈F H ꣇Qv죂 N G ﲂJ M 裇  ܬ. J 裇 O F ꣇Qv EJ ޼ - FH C O F bM O HKM N F b F F補 F I辋 H O HKM Æ ܋𴈶A.

95. ܪKM ܬ C A 裇 v h- ܪK FFF ݈F͆콂 F G F 싪 J 裈 . FFF F FK 숶A C J ܬ 崂 , C A FF 贋  A b ܪK , gH O 裂 M v hA O MA. 崂 C O AF ܪK N Fœ C M  b ܃ MA.- ܪK N ܪK A O ެ 嚪 FF 裆I󣇮   補 . ޼F FF ܮ O 崂  GJP J v h ܙ ܬ M F P O O FF ܃WK ܙ. J , O L CJ ܮJ CJ P ꣈F񣰋 O ⴈ 裆.

96. L C ͫF ܮ 裇 C J ܬ Q G𣆬 HA. C OF HKMK W N 般 W𴈶 G𴈶 ''MFM G''  ޼ F; ޼辋 . Qv AF  裃AvO FJ (1919-22) O ޡ O K C 臮, F O J E î J 裇, Q FC O FK F P M MF C LF. 70 ݇O H 嚪 F O O H CA 崂 O C O ܿA  GH ެ, N F C F󈶂 F ޼ ꌻ H GEA M  񆴫 .

97. N C CJ (W.R.P) GH F AA N 裆裴, M죊H J HKQ O F F ܬ ކ . LHM H‹, A  ‹ qL 裇 補 Æ FFF ܮ . FF މ ܙ ܉ ݆C  裇H‹, HA O  A ܄ M C N 般 F  ޡ C O F A.

98. ܬ F ފ̫F 嚪 FJ ܬ O C N F HFGF A. ܬ M GJ W FFF ܬ C LO ޼ N F C F G A.

99. 1985 ޼ ܬ , HKQ vA F L qL, , 켂 F F F A ރ A. N C C H,  F ܬ M H F H . 裋 AF 1951 ݋ ݇ ͡ 裃A A c "讬 b G M.

100. 1963 ݋ ݇ ެH F辋, ܬ M L h (1973 N C C (WRP) .) A F ެ L hA, N C CJ C 𣂰 1960 O FJ ޼ K C,  H ⴈ. F F ܬ M FL HA L h- N C C HKQ C C 膴 ܬ M ܬ ܮE. ޶ ⊫𣶋 C E K 裴, F C ܿ  ܮEM HFL. 1968 O A, ܬ HKQ 캬J 𴈶 O ܮJ FH ܡP ( FK FK vH ) N F M 𣂰 A F ݌ 裼 ܬ O F ͫ FHM.

101. މ H v. . (SLL) J 𣂰O HMF H퉶 A. 1967 M . C. I- QQ C H 󣆮 YM (REDGARD) 舶 G A, K O C ݆C AF N 般 ܮEK . vA ܮ 補 e  F補 F qL, 켋 C F F P HC CP A 裇 G𣆬 HMF . v. . . H. ݘ. H. O vA F숬 HMF M ''H'', ''輈F C'' F F A ޼.

102. 1971 옉 L h- N C C FK މ 輈M A , 裋 A F裇 C Q ޼ . qL, , A vA ܮJ 補 ͮ H މ Q . ܶ ''裆𣆮 캬 AF MA 補 ޼'' KM. ܶ '' H GF.'' ܶ ''弫𣶋 C 캬 N裆 ܬM,'' F ܶ J 裇 般 K補 , F L ʹF ފ𣿶 A'' .

103. 裋 A F補 , Q G, 裋 AF¬ 補 F숶 C M ކ . 1972 H J ޼  膮 ''"O MO C HMFO N ݆CF󈶂 , Lꈬ 膴  î C C J 裇 vA FO, vAF F 裇  񆴫 膮 ?'' F ܿ ޙ ޼. 1979 M , H ܬ M C P MGA. F N C C LF, '' F HMF H ކ ¬ HKP ޙ C N JM . F HMF쉶 C  裼A 󣴋 혾I MN혬 HMF .'' .

104. M C 𣂰, ܬ HFGF ꌻ FO ܮJ Fd ꌻ K 񣘂C MFJ N C CJ F '' F HMFJ H H 冴'' NF. މ NJ 񆴫 N F F ͫ F N G . F 裋 AF ܬ肰M qL  HK, O F, 񣘂C F ܈FC A ⴂ ''C컋 C  ?'' bQ 補î ޼ .

105. 1985 - 86 H J ꣊F N C C 캬 M 裆裴 ޶ ܮ MA; G C 裆𣆮 GK, F A, HK O C ݆C Æ, HKQ N, NC F ܮE, ܬ M F N K A C A裰. c FJ N C CJ ޡ 裊F A M N F  H O F ͫ P 񣘂C Fd컋 . މ HH ꣟ N C CJ F, O C "讬 , QF P P ܼ FF 輈 ޼F. N F 嚪 G蛾, P 𣼆 M N F ܮ. J ނ裆 N F 񣘂C E ݟ F A ܫJ vLQv, F, O C bMFO G, ͮ辫 .

106. 1985-86 ܬ , N C CJ F ެ HM ޼ LO ܬ HK vAFL 裇. qL  IJ 裘M H , ܂ CJ 70 ݇ G ''裇죆O'' 􉶪補 FF v裾 ܬ죘. AgC v L J 裂 裘 冴 ņ,  vLQvO E CL 補 ެ툶 裇. 裋 AF ܬ M C GK ꣂ N C CJ HK ܬ M F A F F H N C CJ ޼ HK. vA ,  vLQ bM 辋 H ꌶ 裇죘. ޡ K  N C CJ I꣄, ܬ HL FH KF F 補 N.

107. 1985- 86 HM ޼ 싪 C F  F F F HMF ެ ݛ e ⴈ裆. H 裋 AFœ HFL G FO F M ޼. 1938 vA vH 裋 A, G蛾O ܿO W 1963 M Y  C ޙF. 1963 ܪK L N C (SWP) J YN F v.. ݙ 裂. 裋 AF ܬ肰 1985 ݇M 𣂰AJ . 裋 AF ܬ M c K ܮ 裇, HKQ FO 裆裴 F . H N C C ޼ ܫ, ܶ ܬ肰 M F, 񣘂C 裆𣆮 C ކ .

108. N C C L F F ܬ 숶J 裋 A􈶂 'H' ܡP  ܮ e T . ރ , F숬 IIC J 裆C A K. ފi M, F F . H FO ϡP C 裰. ޶ N F e C E e FF ܿF HFLA. HF A KM 꽬 裆 F, C H J F 嚪 O 辋 ܶ M A HA.

109. 1985 - 86 H 裋 AF HMFJ F M I. ޶ 1953 ܬ肰 GF ޼  F vA F  c F 񣰋. F M c AI, . '' ܬM vAv C 񣘂Cv ܬ肰M J W 裇 G A.

110. vLQ,  AP ެ 裆裴, H ׆v ޡ KM ɇM I " FJ GH O G vH C C, 補 ܬ O F G A 裴. - O b PJ " ܄LL e. H쾂 쾋, 般 MK𴈶 𣼆 A 졪裴 H FK ܃W O. Q‹ 1973-75 HM ޼ L M캮 F OF I A OM H ׆v 裊F N G F I 裆. 1970O CFO i FK i, C i P 𣼆 'v죂H' (STAGFLATION-i躋 躋 ެ) 舶 .

111. i OM I辋 A . ެ 1970 辋 옉 iC . 1974 H , ܪK 󇮽 i 贬 iC . 1976 M h e K i 9.2% ݰ. 1966 ޶ 13.4% ޼. ܪKM GF QO i 1963 - 66 15.5%- ޼ 1967 - 70 12.7% 辋 1971 - 74 10% 辋 1978 9.7% 辋 iC . 1965- C F 14% MA. 1970 M ܬ 8.8% iC . 1980 O 8.2% ޼, 1982 6.7% iC.

112. iF iC, i, e ܬ HJ KM F裇 ܪK O , 1970O CFJ N F O  숶M N ޙ . 1979 裘 G w Kꘚ AJ G . C 補 ܺ A. 죋 芫K H ޼, N 舶 F c  숶 𣼆, O F補 HM ɇ i P . C M H M. 1983 E 1975 ޼ 裆 A.

113. 1980 K l K ܪKM N 舶 F A  I 裆. F裆 񣆫죋 F . . - C. . . (AFL- CIO) M G, 裘 GF P ܮ 裇 1981, v 13,000 M 𣂰󈶂 膴 c . N F 膮裊 P M F M N F ܮ 숶膴 옉.

114. N FH 嚪 F 𴈶 𣼆 . . - C. . . N F 숶  A. ޶ N ꣘ N . ޼裇 𮂬 󈶄 A. L, ''F裴'' E軬 K FO. EJ N꣬ 콂 ݘ . N 캬J Æ GF 心񊹂 弃A툶 補 裇. F G, K Æ J ﴈ GA c ꌶ, O 𣘬 N FKO ꣈FA. K ܪK Æ eF OJ N FF ꣈F M FK F HFLA. QO wFL 싪F, M FK ܙ M E MA. 1980 M 24% MJ 죘 苪Q  ߆A. 1970 L C F 75.4% AJ. 1986- ܉O 61% iC.

115. 1979-80 ܪK OF 補 補, ܬ F ݆C MFJ I . 1979 F   ⴂ, N 般 膴𣆴 裇 裇 c A FL , 죋 芫K H ܬ񊹂 N膴 F P G. HC vLQ ܬ 裇 ''L'' IF ꣃ, bM 裆 H, Q 補O ޼ 補肰 FH. 裙  옉 QJ ވ HMF . Q ''YO'' H PH ''Q'' H C N C  裇. 1979 - 1988 ެ 𣘈 Agv J H ꣃ躋 YF, 補 GK. ފ𣂰 ܪK裾‹, ‹ 񆴋 膴 GMM. vFLM 辂A W, GCF J W, ꣃ, O F N F ܬ 蘂A. GFJ, AJ ꣆J W gFJ HA  v裘M ߂죘 YM J 裉FJ މF GF 補 H CA.

116. ܬ N F O ", O H F OF F H𴈶 . J C ެ O F O J "J ޼ MM補 P J M O 苪裴 " , gF 心 裇.

117. 1970O iF iC G  ÆO L F C 裴. M ꉬ 𣶋 ޙ MF ެ F . ܬ C ܪK , F bM FF ݆ i M ܮ 򣰋. ެ NO 致H‹ 툶‹ î MF NF F옹 O C F . ܬ F, ̫F 弃A특 N KF. މ N HMF OF F ꣬ F , 󈶂 O C ܬ ެ F Q꣈񂰋 ެ ܮ P 𣶋 ޙ M bMA.

118. H  ÆO F ̫  HK躮, C  裇 E ެ퉶 裇. ܪK FF ꣘ gFJ 辋 , ܪK FFF ܉vF މ ܪK裬 A A 裴 GJ ޼ O G P OJ. ޶ NO O iC ܮ 裮 裆, ܪKM C F ކ A.

119. ܪKM FF W G  HF OF ̫ C H Y , N F辋 F辋 ⿄C 裆. ޶ ܪK O ̫F 嚪 ͬJ A. ܪKM, ‚ ެ  K  ޼, ܶ FFFA 쉶 ꙽ F O 񆴋 AM죶. H O 般 Q, ܪK 컋 GF Æ J, F H ''܆ Æ'' ܮ 蘉 A. 1992 O Q H ꉬ G FO A ޶ ݰ.

120. C A  E C H O K HMF򣰋. GF F ꉬO P A G 裇 C OFF F N F M. K N ެJ‹ N O HK C 芹C Aœ PA. FFF FJ N F F, F E ⿄C 臮 CM , ޫ 𣂰 HKM, b ܪKM (C C)  P.

121. E, HA O 㛬, C OF C ͫO Y򣰋. b ܪK , HK މF F  P N 𣶊 CJ 弫𣶋 ޙFH‹ ܬ ܬ 񼉶 d ݰ. FF C O AP 補 , N PL LꊹC M N .

122. F E,  PH M QQ, A H O Y AP vLQ F, ꉬ 補 FFL ៪A C HF M. YM O, O O vLQ F ႰM M 35 ݇ J ܋ HA. i躋, J F죆캋 P 般 E 裇A. F ܇J G ⴈ裆, vLQv O N O e P ܬF 補 죘.

The United States, Japan and Europe and the Growth of Interimperialist Antagonisms

A ܪK , , 𣾋 FF ެ O C

123. O F 裇   FFF 裇 MF O bMF HJ   𣘬 OF HFGF ܪK FF 蘾, ̫ ܬ  QO FJ , O A, N O  A b HC M P. ܈ HFGFO ܪK H. ٪ eF F; ''I H M G ꉬ ެG 옹 OJ 般 MM ♬ 𣼆 A HΆ, 옹 HO , M F GF gF F E, 투 M, 補, i CgF FAM. C MG M FO Q K ܙ. C gFJ MG般 膴𴈶 bQ ܬ 𣡫 . ݆F GF ܮJ ܬ쉶M... ꣡ MO O A K O CP FJ ܬF...܉ N C ެ P ܮ 輈F K FA 裇. N, Q ޼ F MF Q 裇 H 裇 般 Cw M .  ⶾ 쉶 MM MF 옉 J, C 補 HAF  裆 M죊H, MF , 𣽋 FM 𴈶.'' (OM, F 66, 3, 585- 95)

124. N "讂 E ܙ. ٪  , ܃WKA. 70 ݇ vAJ ݌ K K M 裆A; ''O HMF O F F C ♬ 쉶 C 致. ޡ C F C މ F F  I肰A ޼A. ܬH 𣂰, މ ♬ 숶 . ̫ , G, , O ܫ A M. P F HK躮 옹 ܬ񉶜. GJ O 嚪  O F O K M W𴈶 F ކ A. FF C 1789-1815, 1848-1859,1864-1866, 1870O CO O C J M M  ⴈ裆. ޡ ޶ C A躮 ެA .'' ( 꺋)

125. F ܬF HMF OF W C 꺬J W 裇 K. FF ެ , Æ 󇴋 O FO F G 죋 M ''b FF'' 輈, FKF 裘 辆vA, ꣊ . FF ެJ 輈 FF F, M E ެJ  OM. H M, K . ޶ H - ׆v ܬH Hœ ܪK FFF L F舶 O ܮEP .

126. 󈶂, C ެJ 𣆮 FF P b M ß  裇 輈, 죋 𣼂 H ޼ FF ެJ I辋 A O 躮 C 蘂M.

127. ꉬJ ܪKM F 裆 J OM 裆캮. 1950 - 1976 ܪK G 600 裮 K 900 裮 ެ 裇. 1977 ޼ 1981 2500 裮 3,400 裮 ެ F . 1982 3,600 裮 ޼. 1985 ܶ 12,500 裮 ↮. 1970 ܪK 𣼆, F . F 𣼆, 𣼆 F . ޡ G WA. 1985 ‚ ܪK FO 䉶 A F- Q, dv, GK, 裶, F- ܫ QL 죘 , ܽ F, 􂆫Q F 𣼆, I A F . 1965 65% ޼ ܪK FJ 1980 20% iC . 1980 - 1984 ެJ ܪK F ꉬ A 23% . ޼ FJ 39.3% ܪK F . 1975 FJ 39.3% ܪK F . 1975 ܶ 16.4% iC . 1984 ܶ 8.4% 񆴫 ޼. 1973 - 1983 ެ ܪK F 44% iC. 1950O 弃A ܪK Q, ܪK ꉬ 95% A. ފ𣿫 P 60% .

128. N, GF F C 裆,  M OM . ܪKM iC M HJ, ܬ M̆ ޼A. 裙˟ , ܪK裾, ‚ ެJ F O FK . Q F ܪK FM M FK . 1960 ܪK ‚ 140 裮 𣼆 M . 110 裮 𣼆 補 . 1985 ܪK2,260 裮 F 𣼆 F . 6880 裮 𣼆 F . iF K ꌻ 𣿶 ޶ FJ 5 샰 FKH FJ 18 샰 FK HFGF A. 1960 Q ܪK F 30% G裇. 1980 ޶ 70% C . 1960 - 1980 ެ C FJ Q 300% FK.

129. GFJ Q F 20 MF C 致. ܪKM C O 26,400 裮 HJ, Q C O ꣈ ފ𣿶 30,000 裮 ↮. A I芪K ↴ AO A ¬. A E AO 25 A ¬. E 500 AO 98 ¬. ܬ A O 25% 킬 PHA. HI숶 ܪK A ܬ A ꣈O 18% 񆴫 裇. K 򃰋 25 AO 12 A ¬. 1986 죂A ꉬ A ꉬA. ޶ FH 1\3 A 裇A. cΫ򣘂 ꉬJ ꘂM, A ꉬ ެ ܬM K 죂A. gv 苪QJ ꉬ 5,400 裮 . ޶ K ܪK 𣆮 K L ܇ 苪Q M 10 샰 F. މO M 1987 ܂ vg K G HFLA. FL 죂A M P eM. vg ݇ 숶 K W G 裇A. vg " A O FK 'K LCJ' 혾̘ ݌ OA. ܶ F A FJK C HFLA. P O PHJ ''1987 K GF ܪKMI ‚ F PH P.'' . (1988 - vHK, 7 71)

130. Q - ܪK OF M 𣆮 𣶋 ޙ MF A ܬ쉶 A. F ꉬ 膴𣆮 W 裇  𣼆, ''L ''  ܪKM ͘ A. K 贋 iC 옉 Q ܪKM GF, N ܉vF K FK 裇. LQM 11 I芪K AO 5 A QK 膴A. ܉ GF 񆴋 O A ꣈ 2,500 裮 A. ܪK 裃AC Q F F 裊 󈶂 FO J Q N , GF O F F F숬 MKF. 裊  ܪKMœ 𣼆 F  K, , vJ, C A O ެ특 ꣘F FK 裇.

131. Q H 􈶂 ޡ G􂰋 ެJ G  ܪKM ܉vF iC F L񂰋 ެJ 𣴋 ޼ FF 𣆮 ެJ E F ܬ A𴈶A. Q O ¬ C H ܪK ެM죶 MFA ޼ . ެ F ݌O HF F KA. Y M ܪK F A I P FAA Q F ⇪ N ܪKM ‚ G׆쾫򣰋. މ Q O 舶  贬 𣼜 G׆ , ޡ PH HMF F 𣘊H 1941 ޼ 裆 . c F ވ G Q O  A補 .

132. ‚ ܪK裾 ެ M MF A 裵 FF MO vF𣆬 􂰋 E MA. 죋 軈 옉 ꣊ O ܪK FFF F躋, FF ެ ꣉ L F MK般 ܮ 裇 𣼂 H 꿬 C MA. 죋  A ܫ , MJ N FF ެJ O P, FF iC I F F PMA. ެ ܬF ܮJ ꉬ A O F  F. J O 裆 K, ܪK裾, ‚ ެ ''1930 ݋ ݇ ; GF 舶  H ⴂ 補 M  A C  A iC ܄ 裇.'' ܫ ˙, 82)

133. FF MO ޡ F AA. A O , MF F舶 F ޼ MA裇 MM. 1992 Q H ꉬ ♬ 膴 舶 ޙ 񆴋 Q G F ܪK裾, ‚, 𣾂 ެ C裵 FF ެ " 옹. 33 裮 O ꉬ 裇. H O ܉ 1992 ެ, gFJ 𣆮 I 옉F  A. ܪK H 贋 K M. Æ ꉬJ ܪK 𣼆 MAM ⴂ 肰 F F 裴 ܄F.

134. Qꉬ F C N P裶 ޼A. H O ެ특 O ݆CJ W G . J ެ H ꉬ M MF C O ܋F ެ O OF. HKw H  M C ܬ  ꙽ ''膴 '' F. ''H AF'' ݘ HK Hv, QJ ޶ ܃WK. ꣉ C O ޶ î O Ed ܮJ G𣆬 裇. Q ꉬ FF H H N 般 A 򣰋. eF iw, C Mv H K P ެ특 ܬ M c, NG e  M MF ެ퉶. M 裮 N J . O 1\3 A 25 򶂰 .

135. 嚪 H O 躋  N 裆 F, , G 裇 C O FI Q ꉬ 𣆮J LF A. T ꣃ M ꌶ. i i 숬 ެ킰 󈶂 K. 񣘂 ꣃ 1985 脪 ݇ 󈶄 ꌶ. FK e ܬ 𮂬 ꙽ 塬 P. QJ (󣇴 𮂬 F) N i GJ 𮂬 M 󈶂 I ͡ F .

Imperialism and the Asian Pacific Rim

FF C H

136. 裙˟ C H HFF O C 致. ޶ , , K, 裃, C̘, މC, C, , HLv, A 裇. Y މ MJ HFF 򣰋. ޡ C H HMF P O ݌O O F F P ꘂ ރ PH. 1960 - 1982 ެJ Y C - H O  F (GDP) FJ 7.8%- ޼ 16.4% . ܪKM F 옹𴈶J C - HA F 18%- ޼ 53.2% FK. 1965 弃A C - H 18,300 裮 𣼆, F . ޶ ܪK F 75% . 1983 O F 170,000 裮 (1.7 KL) . ޶ K F 裆 30% .

137. 죋 F M ޼ A ܫ O O MK CM H O A FF OF QQ M투 M 𣆴 A MM. Q, FF F C K ''މ 𣂰 OF K C cA MA  . ޶ ܊.'' ܪK FF C H  '' ެ킰 '' F 裇A. ܪK I (Semiconductor) NL, 弃A IO I辋 C C-H F F A. ܃ " ެ특 N GA. ޚ ެ F ܪKM F '' vFœ '' C ̘FA. މ HMFO HEJ  K O. 'I' NP ݌ PH; ''1964-1972 FJ ܪK 弃A, IG F ެ특 싪, ݛ 裇 弃A I FJ A ݰ. C HMF컋 , ܪKM ެ M F M 'F ެ' 蘈 M gFJ ႰMA.'' ( 𣆮J ܪK N, Cv- , 1983).

138. C-H O N 般 މ I 콂 ܮJ ܬ񉶜. C O GFF M 'F ͫ' - hv F A. ެ ܬ񊹂O , CO 弫𣶋 ܮ ܬ GH󹈶 I꣄ E 裂A. ''v '' ÆO 콂 C N J, މ ' ' P FK 贬 F î򣰋. H ܙ 裊 F M N G ޼.

139. C HA O F A ܋ ފHF F O F H C򣰋. 1960 O ޼ KM O ޼ bM 싪M N K C. G ܬ K ݆  - - - 挪 . ޶ O ݌ H FH ; '' 20 K NO P F𣘊 FKA. N MJ 蘊O N꣬O pM ߆補 옉 P ޙ. N P F F M̆ c FF MvK . J PH FO P, , N G舶 N L ꣉O 般 . FK MF ꣡ I 򣰋. 1970 O FL W PH F ܬ F̘ gF Of 裇A. P, M M FJ N N I肰 L A. (C. I ݘ. 죇, M FK) 'KM' PJ . 65)

140. ނ膴J CK KM OF P GH O M . ޫ K HMF F 1980 5 裇 P 脪  2,70,000 ݰ. 56% N 2,00,000 A. K N, 󈶂 53 E A. NF (ILO) ݌M, ޶  裆 F. 簈N J 12 E 裇򣰋. F C N 옄C 24 E . 1985 裊 GO 1,618 N MO 裙.

141. C HA 'MF컋' O K G M ޡ I J HFLA. KM OF, 崂 O ݆C F F O E 裇A. C H, GC 裆𣆮 H MA F HC I.

Impoverishment of the Backward Countries

HA O

142. IJ J 𣡬JK PH캮 , OF AJA. F H NH A FJ C, HK, b ܪK O PH O J. ܈ 15 ݇ G Y膴 𣻜. ''Q NH'' cF C O ̘F N H  ''F Fh 補J'' ߴ. ެ ''F F''  FF F F KF ޼ M ꌻ F𣘂. ̘F 補 L ܙ ''O ܙ C'' 裆 C 싪. A H, H ޡ eI.

143. 1970O FF AO ႰM HA  H FH 꽈 E. A "讂 FO M 贬 F O M ޼ ˟ P F 숶 iC, F vH, 裊 補O FK ܿ މ ݆C 裴 ߴ, 蘾 𣼆O M ꌻ "J O. AJ, GFF(IMF) HA  F Fh 補 M MM, P FFF ܮE ꌻ ''F ͫ'' H.

144. F Fh ޼ F ꙽ މ C A ''Y񊹂'' ł ܬ. A eF 制裇 "ދY񊹂..... M M ͛A𣻜 C  P (Sub-Saharan Africa) HK裾, J F𣘈M c GH. K GO ܮJ C ޙM숶, މ M, , ꈶ F, cF, ޼H숬 MvK M죽 K w " ( A ݇P- 1987, - 15). b ܪKM K NO 1975 裆 FK K 補A. J ͡P 񆴫 ܈FC M 補A FH. i FK. 1986 1980 숶 W ޼. 1970O 裆裴, M b ܪK N 꽈 M ޶.

145. AJ PH ܈FC O, FO, FO 裇 iCJ O K HA O 1985 ݋ ݇ C F O ⴈ裆A. J C F 130 , FH 110 , v 240 , J 170 , L 280 , M 170 , A 150 , 190 , މF 270 , މF p裉FJ ݆CJ W F ͫF ݘ F FH. ¬ HMF FFF 冴EF F J I辋 L G투 A.

1950- 85 ެ MF  FJ FJ FK 0.0074% 񆴫 ݰ. J H񣰋 ''I ܇ L iL'" މF F HMFJ i ꌬJ, ''C ޼A ܶ J F F G. HMF, FH 꽈 GF  FKA. GFf i 񆴋 ܙ C F G i F CwA. HF, I FK C vF G A. ެ HC ܈ P b ޙ. މF ܫ ެ A 21 ݋ ˟ ⴈ A." PH. (K 2- 9, 1988- 50)

146. QQ ݌ b K HA O O T: NJ 𣘂 ⃰ ޡ ô HAJ M O  , N PM MC, ⃰ ޡ‹ ܬQ辋 㛬‹ A FOK O J, F I M P ޼裶 J. މ '' OF O M ܮ A. O F ܶ O ޼躮. Q  C FO ܬQ GA ެ 󇴋 މ FK ܮ, M躮 G辋 ޼. O O ޼, K ܉  FO 򘈶 죶. ޶ O KM AM. F񣂰 𣼆 HA  F  K . (FF) LꊹC FF ɂA iF 񆴫 b A. HA O ދM A H .

The Growth of World Debt

Q

147. , HA O 㛬GJ A F F "讂 A 辋 MA. 1973 - 75 H쾂 HF ꣊ , GFQ M F . ܬ F M  ⇪ M. K M  ̫ A. F ވ PH , P 𣶋 ޼F. iO GI ̫F FJL F GF ꣈ ܬ񉶜. 1969 ܪK O 100 裮 ޼ ܉G E 1983 3400 裮 򘉶. gF ޶ 1979 7500 裮 KL 1986ޙ 2000 裮 .

148. މ PH Q F F FO HMF O M. , K ꉬ, C O H O Cw. O F PH 𣆮, GF, ܮ N O F eP A. 1970 O ⇪팂 h 1980 O KM FK މ F 옄C  ⴈ裆죰. eP MF F މ , ޡ ݬ M c K O N NM GA. މ G蛾, ܪKM M 簈 N A M. 죘 NL ꣊ ފ𣂰  1990 켋.

149. F ޼ G މ P  N O O ܃WK. ܬ  ܮ F쉶. ܬ Q F M FK ܬ FH 꽈캮. 1982 O FO (e裴) iF ↮. ݘM 179% 介 CM 129% 介 HCL 122% 介 QM 95% 介 HLC 91% 介 ↮. ܬ C ܬ O ‚ F ެJ MA 1987 132.2% ޼ 1986 179.5% FK. ꣊F C O O ‚  F ެJ MA 1978 25.6% 辋 1982- 33.8% 辋 ޼ 1986 40% FK. ܮJ 𣘂I숶 b ܪK O 죆 致 A. ޶ ݘM 1662 , LMM 622 , HCL 791 , CLJ 1740 , vKM 1615 , CM 1,261 , QM 2.00 .

150. ܪKM OM ܪK OF ܿA G ܋𴈶A. 1970 91,400 裮 ޼ Æ죆C 1987 1,84,100 裮 ܙ C FJ 37% FK. O e 1975 2,320 裮 O ޼ 1979 4,260 裮 1985 12,940 裮 ܙ FF 13.7% 辋 . 1980 1,60 000 裮 ޼ ꣃ, Q 1980 8,00,000 裮 FK. '裘' Q , ܪK F ܮJ  ܋𴈶, ޶ OF N𣆴 F ꣆컋 HFGF A. , FJ A W N "讂 ܬA.

151. ܪK NJ H O FK ꉬJ ܪKM 𣆮J J H 裇죮. J ܶ MF i M PA. 1980 O ެ특 N 般 i𴈶 L iF bM辋, iF KM ߴ膴 裇. A ޙ މ 'ެ특 F' H A Cw F J ܂裆M. 1980 ެ특 100 裮 M ⴈ 12 ެ특 񆴫 싪. 1980- 1985 ެJ ܬ 45 ޼. ܈ 裮 F ެ특 1985 25 辋 1986 33 辋 싪. J G 1986 񊹂 20,000 裮 F 12,200 苪Q P.

152. މ ꣈O 心 M MF H A 裇. 虢犬 (GULF) iK ݘM (ARCO) MJ C 1,200 裮 , . ̡HC ެ튬  虢H GFf 1000 裮 , (SOCAL) 虢犹 ެ특 1,400 裮 . މ ެ특 FF M '裘' . 1950 ܪK Æ ܬ 꽈F 嚪 43 F. 1982 ޼ ꣈, ެJ MA 4- iC . 1983 6,000 裮 (Fquity) 3,000 裮 FK. 1984- F 裘 16,900 裮 FK J Euity 7,800 裮 iC . 1985- 1,45,000 裮 FK. N꣬O G , K ޙ. Q 옄C FK J ♬ 옉 A裇 . 1976 F A 4,000 裮 O ޼ 1984 1,000 裮 FK. 1985 M KMF 47% . Q ܬ A MA. Q 񆮙 1985 F 裘 MGO 25% F F 裇.

153. GH  Q H I航O. K ܄FK HM M躮  ܬH e 躮 FE, 裘 FO AL M ܄A. 65 ݇ vA PH , L F , O F F HFL 򣰋. «裮 P J M ܙ ޡ Cw쾜 F e K HFGF A. ޡ‹ J󣮙 FL  . J HL N FI A H ܉ . A 辋 ܫF C F NO A ̘F .

154. ނ 補 ܺ , N F O O 制H P A. މ A, M ޼F ފE GH . J F N F AC, O ܬH "J M躮 HM. ܉ AC C NJ N죈 裋 AF ޼ A.

The Struggle against Imperialist War.

FF FF

155. C ܬ J F F F FO , ͡ FF ܄ , Fh L ܙ 裆I󣇮 M Q F A. މ˟ ޼ 1914 - 1918 e 1939-1945 «裮 Q A N FF Q ͛讈. ܈  ꣊ ''F'' FF ̫F e 裇 F ''CP '' A. P N. ޡ ܵ ݻO ޼, ꉬ W ‹ ܶ Q F gF 투 PA. O N F  iA. 1972 30,000 裮 ޼ ܬ ݻ i ޡ 1,00,000 裮 FK.

156. P N 󈶂 C 󲂰 ެ މ 𣆮, O F ɂAiC J ܮJ ̫F F F Y񊹄 J b . ܙ O ꣉ b ; F F N Q N b .  ܮ vA PH H M F  𣼈 M : "ޡ  , C 裊 P ꣃ ܙ ͮ. F G G A ޡ C F GO iC,  HFf Fh 򣰋. FFF ފHC b ꣃ HK N Q F FꣶK 心 N ܙ, Pf  O  , ܉ މ F F GJ ޼ F ." ( ܬ躋.)

157. F ޼ F ܪK 옉 gF I F FF ޼, hv F 嶂A裇. 1945 'ܪK ˟' F GM G M . O A '''' ݂A  ܶ M , ܪK裬 M F 裆I󣇮 FJ AJ GF. vAJ PM T A. '' H? ޶ e H, Q 񆮙 ޶ ' EF󆴋' HC MA. ܪK A 'EF' . ܪK FF KJ H " F Q 裇 .'' ( 裋 A 1934)

158.  ܪKM FF 𣆮 F A. b ܪKM, A 崂 O C ⿄C F辋 ܶ F. FFF 󮄲L ޼ 1\6 I 1917 cA M QQ F F辋 A.

159. AvMv PH춫 NO C . ޚ G ܬ  FO H G A. ܪK FFF F '' '' A P ꆬ v hA G ' C 變򣰋' FF O N ܬ肰M F O F ޫ 𣂬 H. , Q, ܪK A F FF 𣼆 FF H C ެ K P. O F F ܮ 裇 ܬ ܈ F  裶 ܋F ''C 裊 補'' N 般 ꮪ ܶ F. C N F F 般 EF . ދ C ެ E ꣉ O 般 讂 . ܈ P ɂAi 𣼆 𣘂F A C .

160. ̫F e FF 裇 F HA O 𣆴 HMFJ ܬ񉶜. ♬ 숪P HK, C, b ܪK裬 ެ특 裇 , 崂 A𴈶 ޡP G. މ I H EJ O J W EF 񆴫  . ޫ HA O O FF F 숬 Y辋, HFF A GJ F辋 F ܬ A. A MO C񣰋. ޶ 崂 O G FF FH MFJ A  M. ‚, 󣂰 ެ  崂  ެ  崂  ެ 裙 , C, A򈶂 CO ༂ O ݰ. މ F މF, Av‚A  F 膮𣴋 O F A. ޚ O ꣉ OF 補 F KM N F 򣰋.

161. M Q ༂ ޼F  N E J ܪK ܙ FF F  F  싪 F, M Q 裂 ܬ肰 N F 補 MA. ކ ꙽ śG , ܈ F HC K M 1917 ܂ C N C c c G C ꣈򣰋. Y, M, AH  辋  ޫ G𣆬 裇. P vA ༂ N 裇A. Q‹ FFF F w, Y 裊, vLQ C ܙ މ ༂ ܙ YN N ⴂ 肰 ܬ O P裶. ܬ肰 M QQ ݊Qv e ݂AI F. ޶ CP F e G H𣂰 .

162. gF 崂 e, F ܪK, ܪK, gH  ܬQ  AP e ܪKM, ܙ FF  , ܬ肰M, v hA ܫ FH G. ܈ F  ܬ O F Q K 崂  P . 崂 O 񆮙 񣘂CvO ܵ, O 崂 N F, CM O A F MF A, ﴈ 臫숬 O𴈶A ܬFF F PA 裆 . ܬ肰 FM. ޶ FF, O   FF FA.  FFF 崂 C C M  K KA. ܈  M Q, ༂ N FF  F GJP 裂A.

163. ܵ ݻ N, ' ' N 般 ܬF H𣂰 vLQ H񣰋. FFF, M F ެ ܵ ݻ FM . A F O C J ɂA i 񆴫 . Q 裆 N Oî ݻ NH , ݻ A O O 般 GE ݂ ݰ.

164. 裋 AF ܬ O Æ '' F'' E ͘ FA. ܬ ' M' O, O HKM N 般 C gFJ W A. F F ⊫𣶋 F C F ܮ 裇. MF O F G F񣰋. 옄C FF F 補肰 ܶ ܈FC G򣰋.

165. FF  F , O O EF GA. ܺ Q QQ N F M . F . N F C O ެO 心 H C. ܊ FFF  MA補 MΆ. C F ܈ A, C 𮂬 F 心 H .

166. ܬ M HK, O F MQF (Chauvinism) F O ܬ 補 GG . ܪK A L , H A L , A L F HCF . FFF F 𣶊 F N F FJ A ܶ F , AF H (Campaign) .

167. ރ vAJ F 񆴋 C; '' 裊F ܬ 補 ܮ 裇 O F CJ EJ 꼋 񆴫 C E F M ꘄꂰ I.  F ޡ 裋 A􈶂 ܘA.'' ( ܬ躋)

The International Committee and the Struggle for Marxism

ܬ肰 񣘂Cꈶ 캋

168. 裋 AF ܬ肰M E vA E N Fœ 膮 ⿊ ݰ. ܶ N F Q O J쾋 F Q O J쾋 F N F, vLQv, FKF FF K ݻEî ޼. ⊫𣶋 ܬ M 죆vAv, O F F G . ޶ M  F M F 죈 GA. N ܬ AI񂰋, H쾂 A FO KNî 򣰋.

169. C C F C FK򣰋. PH C L C M  ܬP F ܮE  J N𴈶A.  ⊫𣶫 N A. C FF LꊹCJ ܮ FF 򘈶A. '' LꊹC'' FF I辋 ܼ FM  I v(abstract) F H A. F N F C '''' M 嚪  "J ''EA.'' , ܮ  裇 ެ C FF ܮJ 񆴫 b . CgFJ F, CJ C ݻ꣬J F  A ޼H‹ (-; NC ܬ񂰋 裼 v hA ܬ ܙ vFL L N NCJ K K ) ܬ M ͫF ޼ HK GJ, P  F K ܙ  MA K C 般 E裂 .  ܬ M F A O N , ܬ O H O L C  Æ, 򣰋.

170. މ G𣆮 ޼ C G N F MP׆ L M A. M C 裆 񣘂CF ܮJ 񆴫 F N ܬH . 񣘂C, N F G gF C FF ̘ O죰. ޶ 񆴫 FFF  O𴈶A. ޶ NO F M A K F O , J ܮ ܋𴈶A. ޶ F 嚪 F ܈FC C F O裆A. ވ M ܮJ  L CJ ͫ, F MKA.

171. 񣘂C N F Q C ܙ. C CJQ Q N , N ܊ HMF N F ⴈ裆A. N L, G 𣼆 N ܬ񊹂 ܬ 裊 補 F A ܈FC ܃WKA. O F F O ޶ N F Q A. N , ܶ  𣘂 I ޼H‹ O 옉 ޼ A. ޶ L J W NO G 򘈶 裇P L ܮ N 膮 M ܙ. "J N A J, O A PL O ܶ b A. CJ f ޙ N 숬 ޡP 裇 M F C, C 般 K補 .

172. C ܃F N F CJ C FF, 補 ⊫𣶋 . ޶ NO G‹, ‹ F C O ޼ Q𴈶 MM 裇K‹ N F H 죶. ܬ肰 PH ; ''O c E M gFJ K補  MP׆ 補꣘ G𣆬 G 񣘂Cv KFA. N F C gFJ O𴈶 GK A F L Q MA. (𣘈 އ옫, 񣘄 1987)

173. N F M G G F 򘈶 캋 'Q򙹂 裬' ܬ F F 񣘂Cꈶ F MA. QF ܮ ކ A. Qv C PJ 񣘂v, ⃪v F, ''Qv N F  CF , G A. F F މ F F HFGF ꌶ E裂A.''

174. ܬ M , 裋 AF v FF vAJ HMF ެ FF ܮ 裇. 50 ݇O F H A 裆𣆴, ͫ, F 輈 P H MM. vA HK, P 'ެ' K 輋 F L, , N꣬ , N C N N꣬ N 膴, Q A iK, A N C轋, N 裊 ܬ, N - MJ ꣃ般 G N 般 C J EF 캬 裙 ޼A.

175. މ ެ K J ܬ肰M F "J FC O O M FCJ񂰋 ެ ެO A. ޫ F, ެ K ⿊J ެ ܮ肪裇 C L AL Q MF ܙ  FK 弫𣶋 죶. ެ FF  ܮE, F N 񼉶Y ެM C FO 裆裴O A HF. ނK P C ܮJL ܊F, N F G C FF Fh C𣘲 . މ FK J NK ެ K O HA M F  O HA M ܮE M. F މG𣆮 N N F L O F CF GKA. N 舶 񣘂C F 膴 C ޙ KMA. O F P ޙ, î C K L C ކ ꙽ GA.

176. F KF ެ FF ܘ H C L N CJ 補. 1963- ݇ ެH O H މ F숬 ''  M '' H. ''ݬ N ܬ   A. PH J, ܉ 􂰊 𣼈 M, M J A. O , FF މ ܉ ܋O e M G A, F CG M 𣼈 ⶪ ޼A ެ FF ޼ O ⴂA. ܈F ܶ 裇M죙 ܙ ޼.'' (C NJ ެ FF F- x )

177. vA ެ FF 般 A MJ  F ꣙LJ. ެ F ܪK N F K FOJ vA P; ''ރ   , F NO G 制 ܙ  ޡ G, , G 制 ? ޶ I A M򣰋... F NO HA G裆 N F G E HFL . ܶ ܊ HFL P N F HA G ܙ. ܶ HA G  P補 M򣰋.   FF KJ ܪK O F "J bM O . I ꣘F G  F ܙ F . މ"讬 b補  裴 .  G ܊ O . ܶ FF E... މ GJ CC ? N  ܬFA ޙ މGJ ޼ 𼂪贂 O G P O,  M般 LF . E NO GJ AJM. NO G  E򣰋. ެ P N F F PF . C ; މ F M gF F, ޶ G 옹 ޼A- N މ F숬 裶 ޶ AM. ꣈F, L C M NJ " b ޼, N ﲂ 񆴫 ޶ PA. ܪK NO K F މ F숬 裶 J C F숬 㟰 GF. ܈  F숶 N F 𣿶, F숬 補  M  ,   . 񆴫  . (ެ FP L vA)

178. N F 嚪 Q F, NO , ޼F, ܬ肰M F J 숶, O F N F C 숶 ެ G H ‹ M. O , N Fœ O ܮ FE CF N Fœ O F M 꽈 . ܬ O F F F F N 裊, CHF, F 혾, ܬ H F 裋 AF ܬ M F IP .

179. G v ꣘ MF F HMF F C ެ 𣆮 O "J F , ̫gFJ N F C ⿄C F ޼A. 򙹜 C N F ފ𣿶 G . '' N 꼃!'' ‹ C 񣘂CF 𣘂 嚪  F ܮ򣰋. c 􈶂 ꈶM 죋 ͡ AO  I꣄ vLQ, C F C 󲺬 O I ݟ GJ P裇. ޚ 裋 AF 裊 . 裋 AF ܬ M , O 心, ޚFF b , 裋 AF J N 般 EF, M L C P .

 


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