The Lessons of October

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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5.3.1948 ޙ A ꋫF 죉 𣶂ÆF މF SM-QQv CJ HFGF 􉶪裇 G蛈F ꣟N.

''F'' ‹ K O ܬ 裊 HKQ FFFI މF OF O F O މF F O M C, , H bM 裋 AF v L vA 1939 ''މF N '' H F O ⴈ裆A.

F H PHA ''މ F HKQM 崂 ݆C F CP ܮ‹  GF މF O A. N މ K. ܬ ꣉ N, K 𣶂Æ, E , G, ݘ ޡ‹ b 補. ޶ FAJ M  śGO bQ. P ެ  N  b ޼. OF ޼ P b ޼ I辋 ܈FC. ޶ މFM 𣡬 MJ e F般 꽈 I A. N   E C MJ H EF ꣉ 崂 HKQ FFF F F A ''.

죋 軈F މ F. 1947- މF , C O FF Æ C 숬 輄 C ܬJ. M F M N, MJ O GO F 裇 M. C O,  FFF FFL MM ܙ C gFJ ެ ܮ G F GH. ޼ E C ޼ ꣊ M F E 補 F C ܴ N ݂A ܫ, J 裇 ˟ IL 裊H, A 辋 ꌶ. މF M ܬ ܇J F PM O 1995L 1,36,000 MJ 裬 ꌶ. C𣡬J e 崂 옉 裇A. މFM F F 60 ݇ G쉶 裇 , 裙M ݘ.. C މF SM QQv CJ ޼ F ݟP G 𣼈 F F HKA.

, !

J ޼ O  A ⡬ ܬ J 񣰋.  ܬ M 裇 , ޶ O Q ܡP C M ޼. 裋 AF F މF LSM- QQv CJ HFGF J ބF FJ AJ I ACA ⡬ F辋.

裉F 裬

J ''F' F 裇죆O 10 O H  ރ .  މ PF H, HKQ, Q މF, , 肰 ''F'' P H . M ݬJ. H  裉F 裬, K , P H P C . ފHO ޼ 샰:

H, 裬 P G . 裉F 裬OJ ܡP C 裬OJ .  M 裆 C gFJ . ޚMF 񆴫 CA . C P G 裆 P G𣆮L K . ܶ ?

F 裬 NJ ܡP, F𣘊H A. 崂 F 崂K H ‹ 裆J J ޙ. ޶ FK 裆I󣇮 򣰋. 裆 ɇ, CA F 裇 K ܙ. ޶ - F F 񣰋.

''", Q Q ܙ 般 ޡ ܡ, Cœ A 裆죶 . P. K P. 裬 裂躮 ޼ NJ IP J H ޼.

裉FJ ޡP O C F  މFM O C 裉F 裬 F FF F M I ܶ.  މ 裬 Q   ‹ ܬM K辋 臮A.

ޚ ꣡H ޡ‹ ꣙ ܈FC . 裉FJ 裬 P, Q P H򣰋. ޶ U P H ܙ.  輶A. ܶ  P H K.  g, ޼躋 FO H 죂A ދQ 裬 Av‚ މF Q‚ ެ Oꋫ𣆴 裆A.

I ނF H Q  𣰋 . ⊫ F ޼ e ܃ MA裇.

F𣘈 M M ܶ P F J 裆 ޶. Q F  e G׆. C Q N膴 ܬ cAM .  F 裇, M ޼ Q QQ C FO F Fh죂AM .

MHK ޡ M Q, 裆J , 裉FJ ޼. Q C F ܬ膮 FF ߴ죘. CJ bM MA. H, F, FK , C މ  M 裇î Q ޼F 裉F. M, Q  M ޼F ܬH Fh裶 e GH.

裉F މFM  M 裆 ܬ P ކ . ދ b F N J . ܬ G J ꌻ.

މ F ?  FOA. ܶ 芫 F.

 GM F! . Q ܶ 󇴫, 崂 C A. , 崂 K O ޼ FFA. , OMA. K F ܶ ܬ ɂAi CF ޼ FJ FA. ܶ C  OMA. ܋ , 崂 QJ ܮE A.

񆮙 ފH 裆 ? C ♬ FE A vh MJ FJ މ G P ޼ G NM M. O ޼ FF. H F ﴈM M.

H

, vh hA H މ J FH MM. 1945 ݇ FO ⿄C 致 G G M Y M MM. P NI ܬJ ޼ H 裂 𣼆 G N M F ޙL.

H  N膴 N LF 싪 𣂰 裆 ޡ C?. G- O F MJ- N ܬ މFM O H‚ M. F ܬi E ݻ I辋 AM. ފH P, ޶ F P ޶ M.

C N

숬M MF U î.  致 숬 N膴 , F 񣘂 .  P HJ U, U , .   F P, 裉FJ 裬  Q  P H M UJ H ܙ.

裉FJ 裬J GO W ꣡ H ފ L C. 싪 śG,  L QQ N , 󆴈辋, F M M G ݌ 裆𣆬 H 裴 C .

񣘂CvA  c F ܂裆𣆬 F OF 󣌉 ܘ 裆. ބF e ރ ݌ CI. F𣘊 P H ⡪Q, G F F U ޼ . Q F A산 U, 񣰋.

񣘂CvO

U 辋, O ݻ辋 M  G׆; F , N. ܈ N N 숬 HMF .

G U ܬ M K, 崂K EJ G F . ܊숬 죶. MF U ܚ. C ݻ MF E ? ރ  M, 񣘂 P 蛪 H 裴A. F  M.  F  ފHJ F̘ O gC ݌ A. މFM ޡ ꣃ U F̘ J H P補A. , ܶ ޡ F weK Av‚ F H F ߴ.

F J ޼ F މ  FF. , ܂輈𣆮 制裇죘 O. O O A ޶ KM.

ܚJ ޶  O A K ? F ݋, ޙ 󇴫. 񆮙 'ޙ', 񆮙 '݋'. F 弃 崂 󲂰 K U 裴. C 輈 J UJ G () ޶.

U G ޼ ޶ ޼N ޼  K . ޡ ܶ K N . ݻE 󇴫K EJ GE򣂰 裆𣆬, 󇴫 裈 cA 裆 ܬ K . 󇴋 ܡF ޼, ܡ산 ޼ ܃WK ܼ .

裉FJ 裬 HJ ޼ ⿋ H ޚ. Q  ޡ C G .

މF HKM

މFM ޡ C G A E A. ܬ, މF HKM މF OF HKQ FFF ެJ F 񣰋. GO H, N MJ F ݆CO J ެ퉶. ނEO ެ O C GJ HMF A.

I辋 vh hA e 񆴋 މF HKM ꣙, hA C ܡP 裃AC C򣰋. HKQ FFF 裃AC C, C ܙ C ޼. C, HKM C 裿 A H FFFO M.

މF , ⿄C致 O M މF O HKQ FFFO ܮE b 򣰋. 般 O 輄C Av P.

HKM F ɇ

HKMJ H, Cw蘈O H O ޼ 𼂪贂A. F މF J 싹 . F J ''C '' (꣊, ) HK. ފHKM, F H b辋, F FF NM裴辋 裆. 󇴋 ފ GH.

HKM 弹F FF ܮF e 񣆴 N cH. MF ܶ F ߴ섪ꌻ F ޿ 񣘂辋 GH. ܚ v 혾  O ޼ FJ F. (weK, F ޡ M‹) . A  J .

މFM HKM, I辋 F O. މF HK ܬ b N ޼.  ɂAH C, O  AA. , HKMO PH F , Q C HJ.

HKM H މ F . i ޙM‹, gFA. FCA‹ MA補 î ޼. L ܙ ܙ. P ޼. vh F މ MA.

裃AC ͮ  F , O A ܮE K. K M G蛈F ܈. ܬ 裉FJ H A HC.

, HKM HCF ܊M H 裡 ܊ 裉F 裡. K F - ꣃ ꣙.  F 裊 ܙ, ܬ L 補O M. a O 補 𣡫 옉 ޼ .

A ܙ F  裡M . މ ܙ bM ꈶM죶. ޶ G K F H𣂰  N񂰋. K F M F ꣃ ⊪𣿶 ܬ K F ͘ 𴈶F A. މ ꣃ U O U 裂 𣼆 '', 'Q' KA ކ  MN ޼.

HKM

HKM މFM M F C  F.

މFM ܴ J ꣊ ꣉ , O 辋, F辋 x-裃Av-h b F ꌻ 𣼆 J 싹 HK.

HKM H ꣊ O ޼ c HJAl.  A . , A c KF 裬O ޼ H . , A " G ޼F AvQL Q H ޼. , މFM 裬O v AA 𣶜 v A 制A. M ޶: ޶ GH?

ނM F F ޼ 𣘂A  FO, HMFO A. A OO O ެ 𣘂A މF QQ Av‚ ެ O G A, ެJ b A.

AF , I񣰋. ܈ ܶ cF ꣈F 躮񣰋. މ˟ F HKM F Q, ˟ ﴊFJ M ޡª HKM O . , ''C AF'' ޡ HKM 變 F.

HKM 變 ''C'' P致 Av މF Q e 裇 P F GE򣰋. , HKM裆 ޼F ޼ b AF N. ܊E ކ G މF QQ Av‚ ެ "讬 N 致H.

ެ ? G ޼F H𣂰 MvKF ެ퉶 ܙ. F 裶 . ޡ E Q, ("") މF Q ܙ AvQ J e A񣂰 ܙ. , G KJ ܮJ ''C '' MHK e A.

F 裙 HA ݻ , F M މ M K裇 ܮJ N . މMF, ޡª M K補 C񣰋. މF Qœ, AvQœ L CJ C G KJ ܮJ e A 򺮻. C śGO ܚK HA K ޙ.

މF QQ, AvQ C ꣙, ܶ L ܮJ e A 裇 މF 񆴫 P. , ޶: M މFM M . މ MF N C F 񆴫, gFJ A މF 𣡫 A (꣊H) C ̘F ꌶ. O F H𣂰 죮 iC N F 񆴫 J A 򺮻. ޡ FJ M ܈.

މ F

ޡ މFMœ O K補 ޡª MF ފ  A. '' HFGF '', ''F'' ެ HKQ FF މFM ޼ A . މFM ޼ HKQ FF O ޡ ̘FAMM. ܬ F ɂAi ޡ ކG.

꣡ ßP F, ܊ J FC컋 FJ ޼. ", ꘉ 裉F F PMM? , HKQ FF ݆CJ ޼ M L H M? ܊,  F ܬ AL 옉 H ?

ފH , M .  FO ܊M vAF .  ފF MA.

F , ꣃ般 裇 숶A H. H  F, K , F ꣃ 裇 죈A? ޙM ꋫQ F G F cA 숬 H裇 F P 𣘂  P, G F GA .

 투 ⴊ. HKQ ޡ NC A. 񣘂Cv HKQ Lꈬ ܬ쉶M 裆죘. M Ê𣆴 H FJ ܶ HKQM O F O K ݆C A.

މ 輈 މFM HA 𣼃. މF O FF FO F 肰 裇 . GA C  ܬ?

HKQM H

ނM F , M M ܡP ެJ O A. ܈, ރ  M 裴A. , HKQ މF  P 꺈F FF W 옉 FA. O , މF e HKQ , H A.

M, މF O ޼  F, މF O HKQ FF Æ ꘉ G. ޡ މF , HKQ FFF, މF OO Æ O . މ ޼ 󣼂 ެ HKQ FFF, ޡ I .

, މFM 싪P FF ެ ܡ. މF O 舶 Æ Y ݆CJ ޼ ݆C FFF P މF Q ܉v EJ F PM F FL C F E 򢉶MM.

HKQ FFF ݆C MM. MF މF OO 숶M HEJ GA. , F, 辋, 辋 M ݘ O F ܬ H 裇. F v ꣘ O  M A.

O FFF މF OF ެJ މ F W M ? M, މFMœ K裇 HKQ FFF ݆C F ܮJ J . x-裃Av bM F C 膴裊 A Y FF-O Æ ܮ ܘ ޶.

HKQ FF 裴 A 꽬 މF O 般 M OA 裇. F J ވ HKQ FF ܮ GO ޼ C OF O ޡ  މFM 裇A.

މFM ޡ GJ M ⡪Q, HKQ 옉 H FK ( ݆C ޡ މF FJ GH ꌶ) ޼ AF  " F補 FK މF O . މF O , A辋 ﲂ J ߴ. FF ܊ J HKQ FF HEJ 制裇.

͡ A M F ⴂ. ޡ ݌O HKQ FFF މF C gF J FJ A. މF OF ޡ A FFA HKQ FFF F śC F ޼  .

f (܈ ) f ꣈F . P F G F O ޶ A. މFM, HKQM ެ O O ޶ A. P f ݂AIH C PA.

Q‹ f F, f ꣈F . ެ PH FJ މFM HKQM ެ IP, gF G O A. J‹ f gFJ e ݆C𴈶 C P. މF, ܃ 嚪 MH MF '''' 𣆴補î 肰 ܙ.

M P, މFMœ ݆C e ܬ񂰋 HF HKQ FF M GA  F MM (ܫ A )  裆.

HKQ މFM AJ F ޙ, މF O 舫 ܶ 裇 K H. މF O ܬ ܬ ޼ HKQ FFF F ޡ‹ M 裇 .

'HKQ FF i' ޡ O 'FF-O Æ i', "N-MJ ꣃ般 A " A. 'L' FFF F O‹, H OF F N 舶‹ ފ ܊A. ޶ ޡ‹, . E ', H' ܡP ⊫𣶋 󇴫 F G.

裃A 裃Av G躋

ޡ މFM FA PH MF ޼, މF QQ ޡ CL H ޶. 裃Av, 裃Av G K G ? 옹 E ?

ޡ  F𣘈 , C H ܵ ނM OA. 裃AC , ޡ CL F ?

 F辋, O辋 A. 裃Av މF OF C C. A ܶ ܃ ޼ . މ ޶ ޡ  OA.

裊 , G F , N O N, K補 މ MF H M 膮. 𣶋 ޙ MF 裃AC  ܋A. O F O C 캬J 裆C A.

Q‹ O C 裃Av ܵJ H ꌶ A. FFFO ޼ C K O F C A 般 EFM ܬ ﲂ F C辜.

裃A މF O F ܬ𣰋. E FFF F F C O K 般 膴𴈶. ޡ ފE N M HA 裃Av 崂MF O Cw K ꘉ F .

FF 般 膴𴈶, 崂  C辋, F‹ 򺮻. 裃Av 옉 O C ޼ A. N A 쉶 . ܬ H O.

ޚM P ޡ ܋꺋 . މ GF F A FF M, 裃A C 裃Av G躋 FF 裂 H A. ܬ F FF-O Æ H MA .

FF-O O " ެδO ޼ M . 裃Av ܋ #A裇 . 裃Av C fO ޼  F "讻 A. FK 裃AC " 裇A.

M ܚ O F M AF F . 裃Av މFMœ H𣂰 F ô A . 裃A F FF ꣘ G F ޡ F 裉 ޼ɜ ޿ 裃A󲂰 ߘ A. I辋 A 裃Av F ޡ‹ F  ⴈ FO ܬ辋 (Y辋) P.

 F 裇 M . , GO - ꣃ H 補򣰋. ރ 裃Av O 옹 e F M 補 H. ޶ FFF 옹 F F AFL .

O bM J J ݻ c. G O, O O H C MF e , 般 꽬 ܚ .

F ܙ 膴 ܙ 裄C 膴 މ Y ܙ މF ꣃ舶 P 옹 Y ݆C ܊ . O P, Y FF-O Æ e ܬ O-GH󹈶 Æ ꘂ. Æ H𣂫.

ފ𣿶  M FO GJ . 裃Av, 裃Av G K G ? E ? O FO . 裃Av, 裃Av G P K G M 贋 F. ܬ E ɂAi 裇 FI J ܋. FF, LF 񣘂 A.