By David North
2 May 2006

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˜‚CˆFŸ H˜ ˜‚v: ˜™ ˜‚C ˆ‹ F˜ ‹ ‚˜. 224 ‚ƒœ ‡ ‰ ˬ H‚™ FŠ‹ 2002-™ OJ†. M 29.95 ܪK‚ ‹.

C™QM™ Duquesne ™‚ˆF™ ŒJ™ (Philosophy) F‚‹ ‹ ‚˜ ¬ ˜‚CˆFŸ H˜ ˜‚v: ˜™ ˜‚C ŒJ™ ¬ ˬ W›‚‡ P‚ ƒA˜:

"˜ C™ ܵ J™ OˆˆFŸ Ÿ gF Ÿl ‹ J™ ˜‚C‹ ™MŸ OŠ ™ PŠ ‡‹. 1989‹ ‡ Mˆ I M Ÿ‹ 1991™ Mˆ Q ‰ H˜, ޼‹ Ÿ‡ ‹FJ™ ‚A ™‚ ˆF ˜F ˜‚CˆFŸ‹ OˆˆFŸ‹ ެ ޼‰ F˜Š ‰M†. M Ÿ NŸAœ ‹ , ‚ œO ܮˆˆF™ MŠŸ vL ‰Š ‚œ F ‰M†. ެ ⿶‹ ˆF™ Ÿ œ ‡J™ NŸ‚Š†œ A™ ‡ † ‹ ‡‚M™." (xi)

"C™ ˜‚C‹" ‰M† ‹ ‚K b˜Š ™M˜O G‹ Š˜J FK: Mˆ PˆF ˜‚CˆF ‚ˆ. ™, ‰‚ Ÿ‚ ܮˆ‹ ? Mˆ FˆˆF C™ ˜‚Cˆ HFLˆF‰ Š Ÿˆ Ÿ ܮŠ‹. ‹Ÿˆ CK˜ I , C™ ˜ ŸP F‹ A ܡP ˜‚Cˆ ŸP ™. ‰ ܮŠJ™ M…˜ ‚ ‡†ˆ ‡ ˜‚Cˆ, ‰‚ ™M˜œ HŸ‚ C C ‡‰ A‹O C ˆA˜? ˜œ ‰Š H„C ŸP‹ † Œœ˜. ˜ ‰ I‚ GJ™ ޼‰ A‹O ‚MŸ F Šƒœ †C ˜‚CFœ G›ˆF ‡ C™ †ƒ ˜œ FŠ ‡A˜. ˆ †ƒœ ‹ "ƒ ™œ" GŠ‹ ܶ ŸP ‹ i‚Š ‡‹ ‹ ‰ A ‡ CK˜ ˆ‹. ˜ ˆJ™ ‰ 1991 A‹O Fˆ‹ ‡ Fˆ ‡‰ ˜‰™ œ. M‚ P™, Fˆ‹ ‚FŒ‰ † †ŠˆF, I‚E MGA‚‚î F‹ ‚ ‡ˆ; F™ F ˜ ˆƒ‚ N‚Š†; ܶ ‰ ™M˜ OŠ ŸP™ †‚ ‰ œ ˆ.

†C L ˆF†‹ Ÿ‹ 캬 AŸPŸ †† vFˆ 裴ˆ ˜‚C‹ J™, 1920O CŠ FJ™ ޼‰, Mˆ ‹Qv† †CJ™ ޼‰ F˜ŠH™ ޼‰ L ††vA Ÿ‹ ˜ ˆF˜ OŸP H˜ Ÿ Mˆ †CJ œJ™ ‰Š ƒ‹ ™. Mˆ †CJ™ ޼‰ ˜‚CˆF ƒ A‹O GKˆ, MˆFŸœ …CJ‰ ˜‚C, †C ˆFpMœ Ÿ‹ N ˜‚ˆF‚ F ‰ C™ 裬Š H„ˆ 1930O™ ˆ‹ C‰ MŸ ‰. v Mœ Ÿ‹ ܬˆ ˜‰ M‹ˆ˜O c‚ƒœ, Ÿ † J‚‚ †C LvO 裬œ vL Ÿ‹ A‹OQ™ ޼‰ ‚œ Q G›ˆF ˜ F˜Š†C ˆF†ˆF EJ™ ޼‰‹.

1933 vLQvœ, ˜ N ˜‚ˆ †‚ 裴ˆ U†˜ Fˆ ŠŸ ˆF‚A ‰†, ††vA A‹OQ™ œ FˆˆF †C, ˜ C™ †C ‹ Ÿ ‡‹ ܬŠ Mˆ˜. ††vAJ H„C Nƒ™ ™™, Mˆ Pˆ ˆ ޼‰. Fˆ‹, N ˜‚ˆ™ ŸŠM†™, vLQ †CJ œœ Mˆ PˆF K‚ N‚‹ ‹ ˜ „Kˆ˜. vLQ‹ ‚J †C ††vA LˆF, ‰ A‹O FˆˆF C ˆF†‹ Ÿ‹ ‹ C™ gF F™ ‹, FˆˆF -FŠF ‚ œœ c‡ ˆFŸ Mˆ Pˆ OˆˆF F‚ˆFŸ †† Š ˆF ܿˆˆF™ ޼‰ ‚ ‹ F˜. ‹ ˜, Mˆ PˆF MF, Ÿ Š, ܪK‚M™ Ÿ‹ ܬ‰œ O™ LŠ †C œ‹ ŸP ‹H ޼‚‹ ‹ P˜; ެ ‹ AˆF ˜‚C ˆF†ˆF ޡP œ ݰ‹.

1991‹ ‡ Mˆ Q P ‹ AˆF ‚ J™ FŠˆF HFLˆ, ˜‚C‹ ˜ M…˜ C™ ‚ ‹ FŠˆF. PM™ ™˜œ ‚ P‚œ‹ ™M‚-‹‹ ˜O™ ˜ MˆQ O™ ‰M‹ Ÿ‹ ŒF™-††vA ‚ˆ™ GGˆŠ†œ ˜‚C Œ I J™ ‚ Š‚ œ ˆ ޼‰F‚‹.

™ ˆ ˆFpM E ‚ˆF OŠœ ‹ M™. , Mˆ PˆF ˜‚CˆF ‹ H‹ Œ Ofœ ‰. ‰ Š‚œ ‡ ‰ HKO™ œ. ™ HKM™, CL™ ‚‹ ޼‰ OˆˆF †ƒ† ˆF™ ˜œ F Š‚œ (Fukuyama, Pipes 𣡫) ‰. ‡‹ HKM™ ™M˜O‹ ޼‰ Š‚œ ‰, ެ c‡ ƒˆF™ C œOJ™ Ÿƒœ ‚ô‹ OŸ ˆ A-™ š F˜ ŸˆFŸ ˆ˜ˆ œ‚ˆ ˜‚C‹ 裴‚裶 ‹ LˆA˜.

˜‚C‹ F˜ L-L‹

Š™, ˜‚CˆFŸ Ÿl ? ˜‚CŸ ‰ ŒJ™, C™ AŸP Š‚‹ ŠHŠŸ ƒ ‹ F ™MK ‚A‹ ‰œ. 1840 O ‚ˆF™ ‹ GF ˜‚C , Ÿl -Ÿ‚ ŒJ™œ Ÿ‹ ‚ƒO ˜„C ŠHˆFŸ †ˆFM† ŠHK A. L ˆˆ ˜‰‹ MŸ M˜CˆF ܮˆˆF™ ˜‚C Š‚œ ˜‰™, ˜‚C ‚™ Ÿ† ‹ †‹ FˆŠ ‡‹. ˜‚C™ W GˆŠ†M†™, ˆ™ ŒJ˜ e‡‹ GŸ‚Š ‡‹ ‰œ ‰ ˆ˜œ FA˜. Ÿ œ‚ˆFœ Ÿ‚ ‚ ††‹ Ÿ‹ 캬O ˜„C‚ 转 Š ܮˆˆ 裴‚A ˜œ ⿶A˜. ˆ NJ™ F‹ C Š‚œ ˜‚‚ MŠ ‚ OŠ †A. C˜ 转 ˆFŸ ˜‚v F ‹ ˜ˆMM™ ‹ ¬ Qˆ IŠˆF‚ †œ˜ ‹ A˜. C˜ L‹ Ÿ‹ ˜‚C‹ A ƒA‚Š ‡‹ A˜, H‰FŸ FŠ ŸˆŸ ݰ‹..

Spirit of Hegel (New Jersey, 1993) ‹ ¬ L™ CK˜ ™ Kv, "™ ‹ W GŸM™; ˜‚‹ ƒ™‹ ‡ˆ H˜, Ÿ L ƒA™, J‹ ‚ˆ‹ ޼‚ ‹ Ÿ Œœ˜" Fœ˜ (11) ˜ ‹ : "˜‚C ‰‚ ˆ‚œ ŠHŸ ‹ †˜œ; ™ ™ ŸP M˜ƒœ ‹ J™ ˆ‹, ˜‹, 转 'ˆ™‹' ŸP ‹ H M‚ˆF ܮŠJ‹ ܬ‰F‰."

CK˜ ™ Hƒ ¬ Hegel's Philosophy of Freedom (New Haven and London, 1999) ‹ L™, Ÿ A H„C‚, ˜‚v ™ ™ ‚ M 裴ˆœ˜ FA˜: "A†ˆ† ‰ Š ‡ L Ÿ‹ C™ ŒJ™ ŠH‚ŠF™ ˆ ˜‹ œ. ‹ˆF™ ‰™ ˜‚C F†ˆF Ÿˆ ŸP ‚ ‡‰. H˜ ‰ ˜ˆF ŠHˆ™ ¬ ™H ™ C‰˜ F‹, ˜‚‹ M 塬 ƒAJ‚ î˜ ˆF‹ MŠ‚ †" [ix]. Hƒ ˜‚, "Š HŸ˜" PŠHA˜. (77).

™M M† ‚A˜, LQ‹ Ÿ‹ Ÿ‚ F†ƒœ ‚ œ‡ ‚A ˆ˜ˆ ܮˆ‹ GŸŠ ™ Fœ˜. The Communist Ideal in Hegel and Marx (Toronto and Buffalo, 1990), L™, ‚A˜, "转 ˜ C‰ ŸP ˜‚v HŠ K‰ ‡, L ŸP ††Ÿ F GˆF, ‹ ŸP ŸˆF ˜ˆ‹ ŸP Ÿ MƒA‚œŸ ˜‚CŸ ‹ ޼‰F‚‹. Š𣿶 HŸˆF HŸ˜œ ܬ bM F˜ œA˜ (˜œ L‹ ޼‰ G Ÿ‚œ ‡ œ). ‰™ ŸP P‰œ †‚†, ޶ ˜‚C M˜ˆ I‚Œ L C™ ˆ‹ ŸP F †˜ O‚A." (3-4). ¬ ‚‹, "˜‚C™ ˆŠ† M‚ˆF™ ޼‰ L C‰‚ ŠŸ ‡‹ " ‚A˜ OŠ‚ Pœ˜. L ƒA™ "W ŸŠ ‡‹; Š𣿶 F †‚œ ޼‚‹ ˆP Š ‡H‚Š‹" ˜‚v PŸ F  F ‚A˜ Pœ˜" (11).

ŸŠ H ˜ OJ† Hegel, Marx and the English State (Toronto, Buffalo and London, 1992) L™ ˜‚C‹ ŸP ¬ M˜ˆ ‚ A˜ MK‚A, "L ‹KˆF ‚A † ‡M†˜ ˜‚C e Ÿ‹†A˜. N‚ ŸˆFŠ œe K ‡ œ‚A Q˜ ˆ 转 ˆ, KFŠ ˆ‹ Ÿ‹ ‹QˆF™ Q˜ ˆK ޼‚裶 ‹ ŸPM†˜. M ˜‚C ˜ ˆF™ ˆFŸ ‹ ™, F‚‹ G‰ ‚A Q„ †C ‚‹, Q˜ ‰Fˆ ‚‹ ˆF™ ܬŠ‚‹ ™™ ŒM‹" (7) Ÿˆ‹ †œ˜.

Hegel and Marx after the Fall of Communism (Cardiff, 1998) Ÿ L™ ™-˜‚v M™  GŠ†œ ˜‚C ˆŒMŸ F ‚ A輬 M˜ˆF C™ ‹‹ Iˆ O O‰œ. "Q„ˆ ƒœ ŸP ˆˆ ™- ˜‚CŸ ެ œ M H„‚K œO‹ ... Q˜ ˆ ܬŠ ŠŸ ™ M‹H˜. ˜‚ ܶ ‚APŠ ‡‹ LˆF˜... Oˆ ˆK ŸP ˜‚C M˜ˆ ™ ŸPŠ˜  . J‹, ™ P, ˜‚v ˆKO ‚ˆ  ˆ PM†˜. , ˜ ŸˆFƒœ „ ˆ ޼‚ ‡‹ ˆFŸ ˆK ŸŠ ‡‹ K‰ˆ˜" (116-118). ‚ A ˆJ™, ˜‚C †C L H‚ Ÿ ™‚î Ÿl†Ÿ PpM ‰ L C™ ˆ‹ 裴‚A --- , ˜C‰ Ÿ‹ ˜ Fˆˆ™ ‚Š‹ ‰‚œ -‰ ‡, ‡ ŠH‚Š ‡‹ ‹.

CK˜ Š‚ ¬ Marx, the Young Hegelians, and the Origins of Radical Social Theory (Cambridge, 1999) L™ ޫ J™ FA˜. Mˆ PˆF K‹ ܬˆ˜‰ A‚ ŠH O™ †C K‹ Oˆ‹ Ÿ‹ ˜w "CM™ ˆFŸ" ˜‚C ˆFŸ I™ F˜Š †† ™M˜O FŠHŸ †ˆFM† A˜. Š‚ ⿶: ˜w "‚œ ˆ" ŸP‹ GK‚‹ ˜‚C GŠ C‚™ Œ‰ ƒO™ ›M MK‚ˆFŸ ˆ ™. ƒ F ޼Š Iˆ ˜ N †˜ ™. ˜‚C ‚œ ‹ ŸP M˜ˆF™ œ œ, Š𣿶 Lˆ ŸP C ˆ‚ K˜ † Ÿ‹ Oˆ‹ ŸP ˜‚C M˜ˆF ŸP HˆFŠ˜‹, ™ ‰M™ ‚ K ™ "˜‚CˆF PŠH† œŸL™ ޼‰ ˆ‹ ˜‹" OŠ Š‚ œŠ†œ. (2) "˜‚CˆFŸ‹ Š™ ™‡‹ Ÿ ˆ Ÿ M‹ Ÿ‚‡œ ™, ‚A O™ ˆˆFŸ‹ Ÿ‹ ˆ˜ˆ N†‚ ˜‚C ˆFŸ ™ ˜‚‡œ ˆ‹. . . . ˜‚CŸ ‰ ˆ‹ ŸP ˆ ˜‚CŸ H‰F˜O ‚, PŠHˆ‚ M™ ‹ ˜‚v ŸP ‰M† P ‹ C‰ ™ ŒŠƒœ Ÿ‹ ˆ‹ ŸPŸ FKˆœ." (3)

‰ ‚‹ C™ gFJ‹ ˆFpM gFJ‹ I‰ ‰ˆFŸA ™M†™, ™ ŸP ‚ ŠH‚Š Ÿˆ‚ ˜„C ޼‚‹. ™, 1840‚ ‰ „CŠœ ˜ ˆ A™, ˜‚v Ÿ‹ ƒ™™ G›ˆŠ† ˆFpM ˜„C ŸP‚ PŠ‚™ ™ ™ ‰ K Q ܮŠJ™ , C™ †† HMˆFŒ , (™ Ÿ ˆ‚ ™) ‹ ˆ˜ˆ gFJ‹, ˆFpM gF‹ H‚AŠŸ K ܮ Š‹. ˆ ޶ HŸ‚ C™ ‚ Œ‹. ™ ˜‚v, ƒ™v A򣼬 Š‚œ 1831™ 转 ‚ H˜ M˜gF M… ŸƒO™ ޼‰‹, ŸgF ŠM ˆ Š ŸƒO™ ޼‰‹ „CŸ‹.

Ÿ ŒŠˆ‹ Š HFGFˆ‹ Œ‹

ŸOŠ† ™, ‚K ˽‹ ˜‚CˆF ˆ˜ˆ ‚ˆ ™Nˆ bM ŸˆFŸ F Ÿ† ‡H‚ NA. ™, ˜ Ÿœ‹ ܵ Ÿ˜ Š‚O™ ޼‰ CP † ݰ‹. ™œ ˜‚C HJ™ ޼‰ MM‚ ‹, ‚˜ ˜‚CˆFŸœ ޼‚‹ ˆF™ CŠH™ ޼‰ ˜‚v MM‚Š ‡‹ FA˜! ‡ ˜‚v bM L„ ˆ™F ‚˜ HŠˆA˜. ܬ‹ œ™F ˜‚v PŠ†œ, HK‚ ƒ™C™ ŒŠ† ‹ Ÿ‹ J M ‚˜ FA˜. ˆF ƒ™v ŒJ™ GŠ†™ F‹ P˜. ˜ ‚A ˆ˜ˆ E‚ˆ ™‚ JŸC ŸP™, ‡ ˜‚C C‰J™ ޼‰ ›‰ L †ƒ ŸPM† ˜‚C‹ Š‹ Cˆ‰gF ‚ˆˆ ŸMˆ˜ ‚˜ A˜!

"ƒ™C‹ ޼‰ A‚‹ ˜‚C‹, ˜‚v ‡‰ M ˆŒMŸ ™A. ܶ ¬ ƒAŸ HM†„ ™‹ ˆ ˜‚v ‡ F ŒA. ˜‚v ŸP ˜‚C ˜ E H ‹ ˜‚C GŠ† ŸP C‰ ˜ 裴‚™ ‚A ‹  ‹A. F™ ˜‚C ŒJ™ ƒOŠ‹ ƒAœ. ‰ MŸ ™ ˜‚C F, ƒ™C™ ޼‰ MM‚Š ‡ ‰ MŸ ˜‚v ˜‚CˆF‹ ޼‰ "e†Š ‡‹"  FŠ A" (1).

ƒ™CŸ‹ ˜‚‚‹ ެ œ ޼‰ F†˜O™ ‚˜ ‹ Q™. ™ ƒO™ Georg Lukacs, Lucio Colletti, Jean Hyppolite, George Lichtheim ˆ˜‹, Frankfurt School ޡ Š† HFGF Leszek Kolakowski ޡ‹ ‡J™ Terrell Carver ‹ ‚ˆ ˆœ˜. ˜‚v ‰ 12 ‡‚ H˜ ƒ™v ˜ ‡, J ޼‰ ˜, ˜‚C ‚Aˆ†ˆF ˜ J™ ¬ G ˆF‚ ‡ ¬ ˆ‚ ‰ 裾 ŸP˜ Ÿ F JŸ. ˜‚CŸ‹ ƒ™‚‹ ެ œ ޼‰‚ Š ު𣿶 †‚ ‰vŠ ŸM†. †LŠ†œ ˆ˜O ‰‚ Ÿ‹ Œ ™™ F˜ˆ GM . Georg Lukas ¬ GŠ† ŠH„CJ™ H˜ ŸP‚‡M†˜. ™ Š ˜ ˆFŸ ˜ F˜Š KMˆ‹, ˜œ ˜‚v, ƒ™v Ÿ‹ L Š‚ ˆFpM ˆ ܵA˜œ Š‚ œˆ ‡‹. ™, ‚ ŸP š .

™ ‹ ˜‰ Š‹ OŸ G‹ ‹H‚ ‹ ›œ ‹ †ŠH ܮˆˆF™ ˜‚‹ ƒ™‹ ˆ˜ˆ-†† ˜ ‡‰˜œ 輶‚  "MJ‚ ˜" ‚˜ ‹ J™ ™ OŠ† ‡œ.

"˜‚v, ƒ™v ޼‹ A˜‰œŠ† † P † CK˜œ ‹, ˜ H ‡‰ ‚ ˜H™ ޼‚A. ޶ Š œ ™ ‡ ˜ ޼‰™ ˜œ ޼‹ FK C‰F‚A˜œ Ÿ Š ‚˜ ⿶A˜." (8)

" ޼‰˜œ"? CK˜ ‚˜ Duquesne ™‚ ˆF™ ŒJ™J™ ¬ ‡˜ ޼‰ ŸP G MKŠ ޼‚‹. ™, ˜‚CŸ‹ ƒ™CŸ‹ ެ œ ŸP ޶ ‹ ˆ J™ M‚‹ 裶. ˜‚v, ƒ™v ޼‚‹ ެ ˆFpM, C™ ˆŠ ‚ 39 ‡‹, 1844-™ ޼‰ ˜‚v 1883™ ‹ cˆ. ‚‹ ‹ ˜œ ˜ ˆ ˜ ‹ ™ A†ˆ† „ ‰FŠH ܡ‹ ‚ ‡‰˜. ‚ˆF ˜‚v-ƒ™v ޡ Š ™O™ 10 ™œ (š‹ 500 ™ 600 ‚ƒœ) KŸˆ ‚Aœ. Ÿ ‡‚‹ ‰ ‡ Q˜O P˜‰ ˜„C, ˜ e K ™‚ †‹ ‚ƒœ, ‰ MŸ ŒJ‚K 弬Š, ‚P HŠ Ÿ‹ Q † ˜‚ ެ ޼‰ Ÿ ŸP ެ ™ ˜‚ ˜ˆA. ˆ˜ˆ gF, C™ gF ™ QŠ† ‡œ ‰F‰‹ ܬŠŸP ƒœ F œ.

˜‚CˆF M˜gF ‹Ÿ ˆ˜ˆ Š‚O™ † F M--PŠ ˜ Cˆ‰‹ (The German Ideology) ‹ ™ ŸP™ œ™ ˆŒ  MK J™ Œ ŒŠ† HFLˆF‰--- ƒ ˆ˜ˆ Š ˜J™ ƒ™C ƒ ŸP MK PŠ‹ ˜‚v 裴ˆœ˜. ˜Q ˆ™ˆF™ ޼‰ ˜‚C cˆ Mˆ™ ‚ FJ†‚‡ L-F˜Š G‰ b ƒ™ CˆKˆ‚ †‹ ‚K ŸC, C™ ˆF M˜ˆFŸ ¬ (Preface to A Critique of Political Economy) 1859™ O‰ ¬ L™ ˜‚ Pœ ˆF™ ‰ A.

" JƒO M˜‹ ŸP I„ C‰ † (Deutsch-Franzsische Jahrbcher ™ „CŠ†) OJ† H ˜‰ Š KŸ‹ ‹  ‚ˆ‚ ‡‚‹ ˜™ HK‚ ƒ™v ƒA‰ N ˜‚ˆF G ŠH† J™  ‡ MŸ ‰˜. 1845‹ ‡ ‰ ˆF™ ‹ Hv™R™ CŠŸ ‰, ƒœ ޼‹ ˜ ŒJ‚ F ƒ C‰Š ‚ ‚ ‡ MŸ ‰‹. ™Š™ ƒ ŒJ™ „꣡ ‚ b˜ˆ‚ œŸ ‹. ‰ MŠ‹ L ˆˆFŸ H‰ ˆˆF M˜ˆFŸ Š 裴ˆF ‹ ™ˆŠ†. ˜ Cˆ‰‹ [The German Ideology] ŸP ‡ K ˆ M ˆŠ HFœ c‡ ˆFŸ v†LM™ œ FŠ˜ ܬ‰F‰. † ›GJ ܶ „ ƒ‚ PM‚Š†. ‰‚ ˆŠ HF Lœ ‚‹ F‚ M†M†‹. ™Š™ A›„C ‹. Q™ ƒ ‚A ‚ O ƒœ ܬ‰ M†‹. ‚ˆF™ ƒ ˆ‚O  ‹ˆ ‚‚ Š‚O™ ˆF‰‹. ŸP™ ‹Qv† †C P‚ ‹ ƒ™‹ † Š† ŸP PŠH M‹A. ܫ™ ‰F ˜ˆ œM ŸP (A Speech on the Question of Free Trade)  OJ† Š ŸP‹ PŠH M‹A. ƒ ˆŒM ‚A œ L™ ™MˆJ™ 裮†‚ †Š†, Š‚‹ ˆ ¬ ŒJL (Poverty of Philosophy) L™ Ÿ...." (Collected Works, Volume 29, New York, 1987, p.264)

˜‚v ˆFJ™ PŠH‹, " ‡ MŸ ‰", "ƒ ‡‚", "ƒ œ ŒJ™ ˜", "ƒ ‚A ‚ O", "ƒ ˜œ" Ÿ‹, "ƒ ‡‚M ‚A œ" Iˆ O ‚‹ ƒ™‚‹ ެ ޼‰ ˜‰ ˆ˜ˆ † GA.

˜‚C M˜ˆFŸ (Critique) ¬ ŸP ‚˜ PŠH†죽‹, ˜ ‰ I ‚A ˆF ŸOM™. ‚˜ † Œ ޶ †‹ ™ ƒœ vHŠ‹. ˜ Š„ Œœ M‹ FI˜ˆ ޼Š, ˆFTMˆ ˜JJ‹, ¬ ‰ Œ‚ ‡† ޼‚‹ ˜‚C P‚ †‹ Œœ˜.

ƒ™ Nˆ ‡‹ ˜ˆF™, ‚˜ ˜‚C ›œ ˆŠ˜, ˜‚ KŠ K‰ œ ‡Ÿ ™Mˆˆ ŸP‚M™ LˆA˜. ƒ™v ‹ "ŒJ  J˜" ‹ "ŒJL †ƒ ŸP ‚ Ÿ˜ ‹ ‚˜ A˜..." (9). "˜‚v ˆˆ ˆ˜. ™‚ˆF™ ޼‰ GF †‹ F™ Ÿ˜. ™ ƒ™v ™KŠ†‹ ŸP‚M™." ˜ ŒJ ‹‚ˆ J˜. JŸC Ÿ ޼‚M™. ‰ J™ ˜† ŒJŸ Š ˜ Ÿ‹ J™ ŸP‰ ŒJ™ F ŸP‹ PŠHˆ J™. ŒJŸ † Ÿ‹ ˜‚C ŒJ™˜‰ F ‹ Ÿ‹ †‹ F‹ ˜ ‡‚M™. ŒJ˜ J™ F †‹ ‰ˆŠH™ ‚ ‡‰ F JŸCŸ˜ ‹." (10) ‚˜ ˜‚ G†A˜.

ˆ ŠI‚ ˜‰ L KŠ † Ÿ‹ Ÿœ FŠFJ ˜‚! ™MˆFˆ FO™ CK˜ ‚˜ OŠ F FŠ ˆ‹, ™‚ˆF™ ŒJŸ J™ ‹ F‹ 弹‹ ޼‚, ŒJŸ C‰ ŸP ܮŠJ™ bM ŒJŸ Š K‚‹ FQŸ‹ ™‚ P˜ †‹ ŸPŠŸ‹ ‰ ˜ˆ‹ ޼Šˆ KM™. ‚K 裬, ˜ bM ŒJ˜ G˜EJ‚ ܮŠ œŠ†™, ŸA POœ ŸP™  PŠ† ˜œ ŸŠ ‡J‚‹. F™ vH ( ŒJ˜ 1632-1677) Ÿ‹ ˜† (H… ŒJ˜ 1596–1650) ˜‹ ƒAJ‚‹. ˜†Y ˆP‹ GM ŸP I„ C‰ ›‚„ KˆF™ v‡† ‹. A˜‚ A˜: "˜† ™M A J™ ™‚ ˆ ‡‰; F F™ Q PM Y˜Fˆ‹ ˜ FJ™ ‡‰ ŸC‚ ܮŠ F ™." (Descartes: A Biography, Cambridge, 2006, p. 37) ‚˜ ˆ‹ ™ " J˜" ("autodidact") › P‚Š ˆŠ† ™, ŸP IŠ K C‰˜œ ‰Š HKM™ ˜‚Š ‡‹.

™ ŠŠ˜ˆ‹, ƒ™C P˜‰ KŠ ŸP ‚K Š, ƒ™C PŠ Š ŸP MK Ÿ‹  ŸP‚ PŠHM™, F‹ PŠ ŒJ™ ŸP ŸP‹ ݰ‹. Elberfeld ‹ ˆF™ gymnasium œOJ™ ¬ Š ƒ™v ˆ GJ™ ˜ ŸP‰ ‹,  Ÿ Œ‹ ™, ¬ GF † Œ„C‚ ‹ ˜O‹ CK˜ ‚˜ K 裵‹ ˜‰ ™Mˆˆˆ ˜ ŸP‰˜ ⡫. Š‹˜ 1837 ƒ™C œO P‚J (Š𣿶 ˜ 17 G‹HJ‚ M™) ƒ™v ˆb NJ™ ŸP‰ "LMv, CC, ˜T™, v ™ M ˆ˜ K‰ œF™ CP‹ wŠM™. c‡ ˆF‚ ™ OF™ P‰ œ ‹, C‰Š ‚ O ˜‰ ˜ ޼‰ ˆF ŒNJ™ F N˜‚ ‹." "A‚ NŠ ˆJ™, ƒ™v, "™ , ‚ MFœ AŸP™ ™ ˜„C ŸP‰˜ ‹, PŠ ‰ A‚ CK˜œ Ÿ‹ ˜, KHv A˜ ™ F‹ ˆ‹ N ˜‚‹ F‚ ‡‰˜. ‹ H†M¬ ™O C‰Š ‚‹ O P‰ N ˜‚‚ î˜" œO P‚ A. ‰ P‚ Kˆ˜, E‹, b‹, "ŒJŸ C‰œ" AŸP™ ƒ™R Š‚œ ŸP‹ ‹ MŠ KMˆœ˜. (Collected Works, Volume 2, New York, 1975, p. 584-85).

ƒ™R‹ ŒJŸ J™ bM Š Ÿœ JŸC ™ F A Ÿ ‹HJ‚‹ ‚K GŠ†™, ƒ™C Š ™A™, ˜‚ ˜ ‹ ˜ œŸ G›‰ G› ŸP PŠ ˜ M™ F˜„C A. ˜Q ˆFpM †ƒO™ ƒ™v, HK‚ ™LƒA ˆ‚ ˆF‰˜ ܬ† ‹ › ‡‰˜ ܶ. 1841‹ ‡ bM-Š ‚ ˜O L ˆ‚O ™‚ ˜‰F‰ Ÿ‹ J™ ‰ ŒJ˜ (HK‚ ™Lƒ) ˜L‚ M‚Š†‰˜. Hw K™ ˆ ŸˆF. œ H‡ ˆ˜ˆ G› Š† ‹ †ˆ ˜ˆ. ˜ F™ ެ A˜˜†, ‚Q, ƒ™v A‹ ޼‰˜. ¬ F™ ܬJ™ ƒAJ‰ ™Lƒ, ˆF™ ¬ ‚ ‡˜œ ˆ GˆF‰˜. ™, Š𣿫 G ˆ ˆ, ŒJ™˜‰ G‹ Ÿ‹ ˆPŸ  ŸP ™ bMŠ Ÿ‚ ‡‰˜. ‹ ™LƒA ‹ ‹› ˜ ŒJ™ A™ ™ F‚‹ Ÿ ŒJ˜ „C Ÿ ƒAŠ JŸ. ™ 1841™ ™ H˜, Hw ƒ FKœ ‰ ˆFJ Š‚O™ ޼‰ ˜œ ŸPˆ †C‚ ˆœ ŸP ŠJ˜. Ÿ‚ L ˆMF ˆ Gˆ‹ E ™LƒAŸ O‚Š†.

L ‹KˆF ŠŸŸ †ˆF™, IŠ K C‰ ƒ™v OŠ†‰˜. 1841‹ ‡-˜ F ͡ ™ ™Lƒ‹ COŠ‹, ™ ŸP ™Lƒ Ÿ‹ ™Lƒ, APvM™ ŒJ˜ L ެ˜™ L GŠ†™ ޼‰ ™Lƒ F ‚Š† †Š Ÿ. "ƒ™‚ ŒJ‹ K, ‹  K" (162) ˆ Ÿ‚ OJ†œ ‚˜ ‰ ͡ ™‹ † Œœ˜. ޶ ˆFpM J™ ˜Ÿ  M I™. ¬ i Œ FŠHŸ†ˆ‹ ™ ‹ ‰ G› Ÿ‹ ™ ‚˜ ‚EˆMA˜.

ƒ™v "˜‚†CF" (positivist) ‚˜ ‹ LˆFœ, ŒJ™ ŸP‹ M…ˆ™ ‚Š†M† ˆFpM ‹ ‰M† ƒ™v ‚˜ KM‚A˜. ‚K ˆF, "转 ŒJ™, M…ˆFŸ ‰ Ÿ ˆ ™ ƒ™v ˆA˜" (15). ˆ YŸ‹ ‚î P‚ ‚‹, ‚ˆFL‚‹ ˜‚C F˜Š C™ Ÿ‹ ˆFpM HŸ‚A L HEJ™  ˆ ˆF ܬˆ N POL‰‹ M‚A‚ ‡M‹ ˆ ‚˜ ‡‚A˜ ‡ˆ A. PŠH† ˆ ‡‹, ‹, ܶ ˆ M™ œ ™O™ ޼‰‹ Ÿ„ ꣡™ K‚ŠA ™ ™ ‚Aˆ‹ . ™, ˆFpM J™ O‚Ÿ‹ ˆ˜ˆ ™L‚‚‹ ‚˜ ŸC ŒM™. † FŒŠ†M† Cˆ‰ ‚ˆ GŸ‡‹ F™ ˜‹ ‡œ˜.

ƒ™v 转 ˆ ‚ ‹ †Ÿ ˆ ‚ƒ GŠ . "¬ ˆF™ ‹ P‚…C‹ ˆ ‡˜" ˜ ŸP CŠ M‚Aœ˜. (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Vol. 25, New York, 1987, p. 25). ™ ŸP ƒ™C † ˆM‚ ˜‚‹ „CŠœ ˜ ŒJL ‹ (Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy) I„ C‰ Of†™ CŠ OŠ† ‡œ. F™ , ޡ‹ Mˆ M™ ‚î C‰„ ™ˆ Oˆ "L‹H Tv" (, ޮ, Ÿ‹ G‚ A‚ œ -Olympian Zeus) ƒ™v PŠH†œ˜. ˆF ™G›„CJ™ (޶ JK™ Ÿ‹ ™‰KM™ ‹ ެ Š‹, Q˜ ˜M †ƒœ ‹ ‹ ˜„C, ‚ J™ †ƒœ ‰ š ŸP ‹ Q ŸP ‚‚ ‰œ ‹), ˜‚‹, ŸJ ŒJ™, ˆF ŒJ™ Ÿ‹ Q Ÿˆ Š HK ŸP ŒJ™, †ˆF ŒJ™, ˆF ŒJ™, ŒJL , ˜ ƒ ܬˆ Ÿ O‹ ™ ܼ‹† ˜„CJ ˜‰, ˜‰œ ެ ‡Hˆ G‹ Œœ˜. ˜ Š ŠO †‹ ޡP, ‹ Ÿ P‚ …C‹ ޼‰™ š J‹ FŠˆ F‰M‹  ‡‰˜. "ܬŠ J" ‚ Ÿ ˜ ‹ ޡ‹ ‚ F œ œ Q˜œ K Š‚ †‹ ‚† †Š‚‚ b˜ 趬 Ÿœ‡ ޼‰Ÿ G‹ ™.. ™ ‚†Š‚œ ŠH †‹ Ÿ‹ ƒA™œ . ƒ F ‹ F‚™ ‹ †ˆFŸœ ‰™, ‚Aƒ ™ƒ ‹. ޡ‹ ޡ‹ ƒ ƒ FŠ ‡Ÿ ™ƒ ‹." (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Volume 26, Moscow, 1990, p. 361-62).

Š‹ ޡ‹ ‚Aƒ ˆF‹ ƒ™™ Š†‚J™, ƒ™v 转 Š "M…ˆFŸ ‰ Ÿ Š" PˆœO˜ ‚˜ š M‹? FŠ˜œ, Ÿ‹ ˜ ‰ ‡‚‹ ™M˜ ˆF™ ‹ ‹ Š ŸP ‚ œ†˜œ ‚˜ GˆM†˜ ‹. ˜‚C ˜ ™ ˆJ™, P˜‰ (Q‚) ‰ F˜˜Š ‹ ™ ‹. ޡ‹ ™Š™ Š𣿶 ‚ˆFL‚‹ P‚œ "ⶾ‹ ‹!" œ ‹.

ƒ™v "˜‚†CF" (Positivist), M…ˆF ˜„C ŒJ Ÿ‚AM† ˆ ‡˜ Š‹ ‹. ‡J™, Ÿ F˜ˆ ƒ™v Fœ˜. I„ C‰ Ÿ M…Q Š‚ ŒJL ˜„CJ™ OŠ‹ Q‚ˆ ‚‹ C‰ bMˆ ˜ ‡M†™ ˆ˜ ‰M‹ ˜ „K‚ Mˆœ˜. ˆ ‚‹ C‰‚ "" G ŒM M K J™ M‚Ÿ ޡP ݰ‹ ƒ™v ˆF ޶ ŸP ŒJ ‹ ˆ J‹ Š캮‹ ‹ P˜. ‚A ˆFJ™ ƒ™v H F˜:

" Ÿ M…‹ PMŸ ˆ M™ ™ Mˆœ. ެ ŒMŸ QˆQˆ J™ ‚ ‡ HKˆ™ Ÿ‹ ŸP †˜ ŸP Š M˜‚躮 † œ. ܫ™ PM QŠ† ‡ƒ ƒAˆ K J™ 填 ‡œ ˜ O‚‹ M˜‚ †‹. ™ š ŒJ™ Ÿ M…‹ ˆ˜ˆ ˆF™ A ƒ œ K Ÿ캮 ƒ ˆ˜ˆ gF C‰ M‚ ‹. ™ ˆ˜ˆ C‰ Ÿ J™ œƒAœ †F ‚ Š‡‹. ‰ ™ F HMˆF ŒŠ ‡‹, ŸM‚Š ‡‹ HMˆF‚, ‰ ŒJ JM C‰ N ™." (Colected Works, Volume 25, p.338)

Ÿ ˆF ŸO‹ ‰‹ ™ M˜‚ M™. ƒ ‚˜ PŠH†Ÿ ŸP‹ F GJ™ ŒJL ˆ‹ ŸP ˆŒ ƒ™v Oˆœ˜:

"Ÿ M… ™˜œ ŒJ ‚EŠ , ˆF F™ ޼‰ ƒ MMˆ‚ œ‹ ‹A˜. ™ C‰FŠ ™™ ˜œ ‰ Ÿˆ‹ . C‰Š ˆ ˜‚ C‰ FŠœ . ™ ˜œ ‰ HK ˆ˜œ Š˜O ˜M™ ޼‰ HFLŠ ™™ ˆ‚ œA˜. (ˆŠ c‡ ‹ AM† ŒJ™O F‚ˆF™ œ, ™ CP ŒJ™ ™‚ˆF™ †‚ †Š†F™ ޼‚A. ޶ CH  †I™™ Š†, ‹ † ˆ‚O ŠH™ ޼‰ ˆ‚ ‹ ‚O ˆ‚O œ), ™ K FŒ ŒŠ죶, Ÿ J™ ܬˆM ˆ ˆ‚‹ ˆF™ ޼‰ œŠA. ެ ŒJ‚ †‡ ‹, Fw ‹ ˆF™ † ŒJ™ ݰ‹. ŒJ ˆ˜œ † ŒJ˜œ M†„ N‰ † ˆˆ Š‚O ™L ܮœ ˜." (Volume 25, p.490-91)

Š𣿶 ˜ QˆF M ŠH‚ œ ‡‹: ƒ™C Š‚O™ ‰ ꣡ ޼‚‹, Š ‚˜ ˆ M™ P‚ ˆ † O„ ‚ 裴‚躮‹? Ÿ M "˜‚C F˜Š N ‡ ‰M† ™M‚ AŸ ™ ƒ ⶾ‹ Œ‹!"

¬ ˆ ˜‚C™ ˆJ, ‚˜ ƒ™ ‚A ‚‹ OŠA. ŒJ™gFJ™ PJ™ ޼‰ ƒ™v "˜‚C‹" PŠ ŸMˆF‰˜ ‹, c‡ ‹ ‡ ˜‚C ˆ‚ P‹ Cˆ‹ ƒ™v  ‚P, ‚˜ "F": ˜‚ ‡H‚ ŸA˜: ˜‚C ˆFŸ H˜ ƒ™™ ‚Š† gF "™" (H-iˆ ™ ˆ ‡‹ ™) ™ ˜‚ ‡H‚ M‹A˜. š, ƒ™v Ÿ‹ "˜‚Cv™" ˆFŸ œŠ‹ GŠ†Ÿ F ‡ ˜‚v 转 ŒJŸ ‡†ˆF™ ޼‰ E † ‡‚M™ ˜ A˜. ‚˜ : "˜‚CŸ‹ ‚‹, ™ ˜‚CŸ‹ ŒJ‚‹ ެ ™ ŒJ‚‹ M…ˆFŸ‹ ެ œ O J™ G‹ C™ ‰™ Ÿ Ÿ‚‚‹ Š™ ™ ‡‹; ‰ MˆF™ †‹ FŠŠŒM™ ‹ ˜‚v ŒJ˜ †I™™, ˜Q ŒJ˜ †I™™, ˜Q L, ˜Q ˆ™ ŒJ˜ ˜ ‹." (161)

‚K ‚‡HŠHŸ , ˜‚v ˆ™ˆF™ ‡‰ Mˆ "˜‚Cvœ" ˆ, ˆ˜ ‹ ‹‡‹ ˜ F˜˜‚A˜. ŒJ™ ˜‰ MƒO™ ˜œ ‡‰ FJJ MM™ ˜œ ˜‚v e œ™ Ÿ‹ L F˜Š GŠœ ܬˆ‹ ˆF˜. "ƒ™‚ ŒJ™ ŸP, ™ ŸP  K." ‚˜ ⿶A˜. "ƒ™C™ ޼‰, Q † C ˜‚CF  JP‰˜. ... ˜‚C J™ Nˆ™ ˜‚C GŠ† ‚Aˆ‹ ˜ K P‰ MNŠ˜M M‹." (162)

˜‚ ˜ ˆ™F M‚‹ Ÿ‹ ‚K ŸC M, "Q † ˜‚‚CFœ ‹ F JP‚M™" ‹ Ÿ‹ ŸP‹ ˆ. ‹H‚, †ˆ AŸP™ ›‰F‚‹ ™M˜ M Š Ÿ‚œ‹ ˆFpM GJ™ ‚˜ ‹H‚‚A˜. ‡ CP‹ ‡ J™ Š ⿶Ÿ ™M˜ †ˆF™ ‹ †˜œ ˜ F G‚A˜. "w ˜‚CˆF ‰" Š‹ G.V. H‚M Š‚ ‚˜ Š  Œ Œ œ? H‚M ŒJ™ ˆ‚ ˆ˜œ ˜ I‹ ‰, ›‰ M™ JP‚A˜ Š‚ œ˜. L ˜‚ML M…‹ (Science of Logic) ŸP Q¬ FŠd† ‚˜ H P‰F? 1914-15™ O‰ Q¬ "ŒJŸ PŠ‚œ (Philosophical Notebooks) F™ 转 ˆ‹ ŸP ‰ Ÿœ‹ ƒAœ; ‰ ™, Q¬ C™ E‚ †† ܮˆ ޼Š MƒA‚œF™ ‹ ‚ˆ ŸˆF. Q¬ ‰ ‹ ˜‚C ˜O ™ ŸP ˆ˜ˆ ‚ PŠHˆ‚ J™ ˆJ˜Š 裴ŠŸ M ‚˜ PM™ ‹. ˆ P˜O KJ™ PŠHˆ‚ J™ ‚˜ †ˆ KM‚‹ Lukacs ‹ ƒAœ˜. I„C‰ J™ ƒA™ J™ F OŠˆ‹ ††vAJ Š‚œ ŸP ? [ܮ‚PŠ-1 ˜‚‹] ™ Deborin, Axelrod ‹ Mˆ †˜ Š ŸP ? H‰ Mˆ ŒJ˜ Mikhail Lifshits Ÿ‹ E.V.Ilyenkov A‹ ˜‰‚ œ‹; ˜œ 贬 ›GJ‹ ™-˜‚v ŸP P‰œŸ G F˜; ܶ‹ Mˆ PˆF™ 꽬 ŸP‰ Fˆ‹ ˆ˜ˆ Š‚‚ 贬 ˆ † GJ‹ (ܶ vL¬ †CJ‹ ŸŠ H‹ ‰‹) F˜

ƒ™ ˜‚†CF, (positivist) ŒJL ‰‹  GKˆ˜ „ CˆFKˆ‚†‹ ŸC‚ ‹ ƒ™C Ÿ ‹ †‹. ܫ™, ˜‚v ˜Q ˆ™F GK‚‹ ˆ‹ ˆ‚O Š‹. ˜‚C Š‚ ܮˆŠ ˜ˆ I‹ QŠ J™ K‰ˆ Š ‚˜ ŸO†‚ †‹ ‹ ¬ ˆŒ FŸ J™ œ ˜‰œ˜ PŠHA. L‹ ޼‰ ˜ Pˆ‚ ‡˜ œ ‰ ‹H‚‚ ˜‚v " ‹" ‹ J™ ‚˜ ˆŒ ‹H‚A˜. ‹ L ‡‹ FŠHŸ Fœ H¬J™, ܮ‚ ŸOŠ‹, ‰ GŠ L GŠ† W›ˆJL‰ M "OŸ" J™ ˜‚v ˆŠ ݰ‹. ƒ™v Ÿ‡ ˜‚CF‹ ˜‚C GŠ† L W›Gˆ ܵAœ˜.

‡J™, ‚˜ PŠH‹ ˆFJ™ „CF‹ OŸ ™. 1873 K ‹ ˜‚v F ޶:

" ƒA™ N L NJQ † †P, Ÿ ˜ F‹. ‚ Q ͬJ J˜ G›, C‰ G› - ˜ 'ˆ' K™ „ ˜ˆ ŸPMA˜- ˜ˆ ˆF ŠO ݰ‹; ˜ˆ ‹ ˆF , Š† ܡP P™. ‚, ˆ‹ Q œˆ™ HFL‚Š†, C‰ ƒ ŸŠA ܡP P™." (Capital, Volume 1, Moscow, 1970, p.29)

‰ ƒA N˜Š ˜‚v ˜Q N™ FF ‹H‚ ‹ ݰ‹. ˜‚C ŸO™ OŸ, ™ Š, ‹ ™. š O‚ , š O ˜‚v ¬ N 转 NJ™ ޼‰ ܮŠJ™ , " ˜ F˜" Pœ˜. š? Q™ L ƒA™ ˜ˆ ‹ C‰J M‚A‚†™ † 輶‹ ˆ™F. ˜‚ ˆ C‰ ƒœ ˜ˆŒ G‹ ˆ Q ˆF™ Ÿ‹ HFLŠ‹. ˜‚v ˆ‹ "Q C‰™ HFL‚ŠŸ" Ÿ˜ ޼‚‹ G ŸP ô ˆ œƒœ. ™ ‚˜ (6‹ ‚ˆF™" ): " ‚ƒ‚, P™ ˆˆF HFLˆ™, H˜ c‡ KJ™ œ ˜‚C F™ ˆ‚ œŠ†, ˜‚C ˆ‚O™ ܮˆˆ ‡‚M™ †‚†™ ." ‹ PŠH†œ, ‹ ‹ Aœ.

˜‚C ˆ‚Š ˆJ™ ‚˜ F˜œ‹ ˜‚ ™. L KJ ŒJ™ e ˜‚C M˜ˆ ŸP‚ PŠHJ™, "HKŠŸ K‚Š ‰Š J™ ˜‚v Ÿ e‡‹ e‡‹ A˜; ŠŸ ޶ œ" A˜(47). ‚‚ š  ޼‰F‚‹ F™ I™. FŠF‚‚ ‹ ˜‚v 裴ˆœ M˜‹ ˜‚ L ˆ™F ‚˜ CˆKˆ‚ †‹ ŸC šMˆF‹ ŠˆFM . š M˜ˆ ˜‚v F M™, L ŒJ™J ˆ †Š ‚‹ bM ˆ˜ˆ E ˆ˜. (Ÿ ƒ™‹ E ƒ OˆF‰˜). ‹ 转 ƒA™ J™ ޼‰ F ŸP, Q ޼Š 輶‹ Ÿ ŒM™ PJ‚‹ ˜ˆM™ ŸP ŒM (Ontology) ‡ œ™ HMˆF‚ vFƒ †˜. ˜‚C M˜ˆF F ‚ ˆM‚ ˜‚A ˆ‚œ ‚A ˆ˜ˆ ‚ˆ ‰F‰ (Š ŸP A†ˆ† ‚˜ PŠH ™ ‹); ˆFŒ Ÿ, ŒMŸ M L gF C‰  ‡‚M™ Gˆ Oˆ. ƒ™‚ ™ ˆ (Absolute Idea) ƒA™gF Y‚‹ G ‰˜Šƒœ ˜ M‚Oˆ ˜‚gF œ ˆ ˜ˆˆ ˆ‚†, ܮˆI‰. ˜ ޼ˆL ƒ ˜ˆŸ ˜‚gF C‰J ƒA™ G›J™ ޼‰ M‚ Ÿ†˜. 转 N ‚‹ ˜ˆˆFŸ‹ ެ ޼‚‹ K W‚AM† ˜‚v GM˜; š ŒJ™, Q ‹ "‚œ ˆ" (G‹ ƒŠ ™ PŠH†˜) ŸP ‡ P™ †ŠA ‹ ˜ P˜. ‡ G›J ˆ ܮˆˆ ‡HŠŸ F, ™ Ÿ ܼ ˜‚gF œ J™ M‚Š˜ˆ˜ ˜‚v M‚A˜.

"‹‹ Ÿ‹ ‚œ ‹ C™ Ÿ‹ šMˆF™ ݰ‹: ‰ GO™ C‰, F ŸP C‰œ, Š𣿶 ܶ ‚ šMˆF‹ œ‚ˆF‹ ‡ œ™ ‰œA. š Ÿ‹ ‹‹ Ÿ‹ ŸP PŠH† J™ ޼‰™, C PŠH† ™H™ ޼‰™, ‰FˆFŸ M™ ޼‰‹ ‰ŠA. ™LŒ ܫ Ÿ‹ †ˆF ŸˆFL‰ ˆM ŸˆFŸ ˜‚ML™ Ÿ‹ FŠ ŸˆA. ޫ ™ ŸJ ŒJL™ J˜˜„C Ÿ (ܫ) J™ ޼‰ J˜ˆ ‚ ŸA. ݡ Š𣿶‹ ޫ Jƒœ Š𣿶 ‰ ŸˆFŸ ƒA. ܼ Q ™‚ ˜ v Q™ QŠˆF ܬ‹ ‡ M‹. (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Volume 3, New York, 1976, p. 10).

Ÿ ‹ 裴‚‹ J™ ˜‚v 转 †ˆF ŒJ™ L™ ޼‰ HŠ†, OŸ ‰F ŒA˜.

ܶ : GM™ M˜‚M ޼Š ˆ œ ˜„C ݰ‹ ( ⿶A˜ ™). G ™L M™ ܶ C™ ‹H‚‹, FL‰ † J™, G ™L M™ ܶ C J˜Š‹, ‡Š J™ C™ ‹ C™ ܬŠ‹ ݰ‹. (Cited in Volume 3, p.10)

˜‚v H, Mƒˆ î L ™†CJ™ J‚‹ ŒM PG, Ÿ† ŸP‹ ‹ŠˆA˜:

Šœ 'GM™ ޡP ' --- '‚œ C‰ ݰ‹. Š‹ Q: C™ ‹H‚ Ÿ‹ . NJ™ C™ ‹H‚ G‹, C G Š‹. ‹‹, ‚œ ‹ ŸP™ ޼‰ ˜‚gF ˜„C ‰ OŸ ƒ裰‹. Q™ ‹ ˜, ‚œ ˜, ‹ ܬŠ Ÿ‹ ܬŠ‚œ C™ ‹H‚ Ÿ‹ CŠ AŸ š ˜ M‚ŠM™; ‹ ܬ š ެ‚Š†œ ‹ M‚ŠM™." (Volume 3, p.10-11)

Š ˆJ™, " 'ˆ' ‹ ‡H‚‹ ‚ ‹ Ÿ‹ O‹ ݰ‹. C, ŸJ ™ 'C™ ܬŠH™' ޼‚‹ ‡ MƒO œ š †‹ '˜‚gF ˆ' ‹ ƒA M ‰ M‚ˆ‹ M™. ‚ …™‹ ‡ P‰ ™ Ÿ‹ ޼‚‹. ܬ MƒŠ™ ޼‚‹; Q™ ŸP M JL‰ ܬ MƒA‚œŠM™." ˜‚v ⿶A˜. (Volume 3, p. 12. Lˆ™ ˜ˆ)

转 NJ™ ‚A i‹, " C‰ O™ ޼‰ ˜ ˜ŠF™; ™ 𣼬 †‡‹, †ˆ‹ œ C‰J ܮŠJ™ M‚ ŸA˜; ޶ ˜‚ML ܼ ™J™ Ÿ Š ‡ G ޼‚A. ޶ CŠ ŸP PŠH† ˆ ŠŒˆ ŸM‚‹ H„C , CŠHŸ‹ ܼ ˆFŸ‹ ެ G‹ ˆ ‡, ˆF ›‚ ŸP™ F ܬ ‚‹ ŸC, F F M‚A‚†‹ ޼‚‹."

š ˜‚v L ܵJ™ œ ܮŠ H ‚A‚ †A˜: "ŒJ™ E C™ M‚ƒO™ C‰‚ ‚裴Š ‡‚M™, G‹ M‚ƒ ܼ C‰ M ŒM‹  ‡œ. MˆF ˜‚™ ˜‚ˆF M ŒJŸ 죰‹. ޼Š GH‚ ˜‚‹ ˆŠM™; ˜‚ˆ GH‚ †ŠA." (Volume 3, p.18)

I ›‰ J™ 转 NŠ ŸP ˜‚R M˜ˆ ‚˜ ˆF™ œM™. ܶ I‹ " F" ‚AMA˜. ˜‚ˆF™ ޼‰ ‹ ˆ ™ ‡ ŸP ˜‚C ŠŸP ‚‹ OŸ J‹ ‚˜ PŠHA˜; ™ ˜‚C ˆ˜ˆ ˜„CJ™ M ‡ ‚Aˆˆ ŸP Š‚ œM™. ‡J™ ‚˜ ެ KŠ K‰ œ  PˆœA˜; Ÿ ˜ : "˜‚v M˜Cˆ ‚ Gˆ‚ 裴ˆ ‹ ‹‚ †‚ œ‡‹; ™ ܶ "H" ˆF MM™ ˆ ‡œ ˜‚ ‡‹." (48) Š M Š ˆFpM J™ ˜Ÿ ݰ‹; ‚K F†ˆF™ ޶ ܮˆ œ. ˆF™ ˜‚v L ˆ™F HŠˆŠA˜; ˆF™ PŠ˜ HK‚ ƒ™™ PŠˆŠ† FKˆ™O M ˆ™-F˜Š "˜‚C‹" ŸM‚Š† ŠA. ™ ˜‚C Š‚O™, Lˆ, œ™ GŠ†L‰ M˜C‚‹ PŠ‚ ™‹ ˆF™‹, ˜‚v A‹ ˆ K A˜ KM‚‹ CK˜ G˜‰ˆFŸ A˜.

Œ ˜‰ (îM™ ƒ™C ‚Aˆ‹ Œ‰ ˆŠ™) Š† ˜‚C ˜ Š‚ ŸPŠ ‹ ‹, ˆ M˜‚‹ J™ ‚˜ ⿶A˜. ‰™O™ ™‹ ˜‚v œ Oˆ L ƒAL™ Œ Œœ˜. 1844‹ ‡ , ŒJ™ ŸP O™ L N ŸP ˜‚C c‡, MK ŠŒ ŸP ‚˜ A†ˆ† M™. ŠF‚ ˜‚v 裴ˆ Š '' L ƒA‹ ŒJ‹ ŸP M˜‹'' ("Critique of the Hegelian Dialectic and Philosophy as a Whole") ‹. ‰ MFŠŸ J™ ޼‰ ‰ J™ ŸO‹  GˆF‚ œA; ™ ŠF M˜ Œ‚ †J™ (Critique) Š†‰ M ô J™ L N ›‰ J™ ŒA.

‰ M˜ˆ ˜‚v FŸ ‹ ¬ Š ™ Ÿ‹ ˆ‚ † Š‚O™ ޼‰ ˆF‚ †‡ ‚A J™ Lˆ ޡP‹. Šϫ ˜  PŠ†‰ L˜œ ƒœ CK˜ ŸP M˜gF ܵ œŸ ˜‚v ‰ ‡˜. ™ ˜‚v ˜‚A‹ ‹ FŠ ‡‰˜; "L ƒA M˜C‚‹ ܵ Ÿ, ˆJ™ ‡ ‡HŠ‚ Ÿ‡ Q˜ ˜. ‡J™ ŒJ ŸP‡˜ ˜" ˜‚v P˜ (Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, [Moscow 1977:] p.135).  L F‚ ‡‰™ ˆ ˆ ˜ ˜‚AŸ OˆF‚ ‡‹?

ƒ™ ‚Š† ˜‚C ܴˆ K Q‚ ‹‹ (The Holy Family) ‚K™ PˆœŠA. ‚˜ ⿶: "˜ Ÿ‹ K L C‰˜‚ F F †ˆ ˆ ‰™ ‡œ. I ⿶‹ [ ‚K ˆ ˜‚v ˆŠ‹], ˜‚v ˜ œO ‚î ˆ˜; ˆ‹ M‹  ‹ CK˜O †ƒœ, C‰ †˜ ˜‚ ‚ MJŠ 裴Š œ˜. ™, ‡‹𣿶 ‰™ MˆFŸK, I O ˆ‚O Š œ, [ ‚K ˆ‚‚ œ] ‰, H‰ ˜‚C Š‚O †ƒœ F™ ™, K‰ œM GKŠ ‡, bM F˜Š‚ ˆ‚œ G‰ œ." (75)

‚Š ˆJ™ "†‹" ‡ ŠI‚ J™ ™ ݰ‹, ˆ ˜‚C ˆ˜ˆ Š F‹ A. ˜‚C ™ GŠ ŸP M˜‹ Iˆ O J™ ‚Š†œ; ܬ ˆFKŠHŸ, M‚ˆFŸ †ˆŠ . 转 ˆ™ ˆ‚ ˜‚v ˆ ˆ‚ MˆF‹ ެ‰ GŸ M‚A‚ . ŸP™ ˆ MK‚‹ Ÿ‹ ˜w ˆF™ G †C ‚F †O ˜‚ˆ ܬ‹ ‡ Q ‹ˆF™ HFLˆ ˆ Ÿ‹. ˜‚gF ˆŠƒO Q‚‹ ™ ‰ ˜‚ˆF gF 캬 ˆF †C ŸˆFŸ ܮŠ ƒ‹. L †C‚ ‡ ܮˆƒœ ‰ˆ Qˆ NK C‰J‹ ‰F‚™, ˜‚‹ J™ †O ˜‚ˆF G ޼ŠH™ œ. ˜Q ˆ™‹ ŸP ˜‚ M˜ˆF Ÿ ‚ƒœ, "‰ ™ ‰ †O ˜‚‹ ™ †O ˜‚‹ ‚ˆF™ ‚ ‡œ ŸP H„C™ ‡HŠˆ ˜‚v, ƒ™C Š‚œ ‹ OŠA. †O ˜‚‹ ™ , ޼Š Ÿ gF Œ G˜Š‰F‚Š†œ  H„C. ‚‹ Ÿ ‚‹ ‚î J™ M˜‚躮™ ›‚ GJ‹, ޡ ˜ ˆF ܬŠH‹ QL† GŸA. (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Volume 4, New York, 1974, p. 37) ˆ J™ ˜‚v, ƒ™C Š‚O™ †O ˜‚‹ F †C ˜‚‹ ‚ Š™ ˜ î ˆ˜ˆ OŠ ޼Š ‚K™ ŸOŠM™ F™ MŠ ‹ ™. 弫 ˜ ެ‹ "‡‹", "†‹ Ÿ‹", "‹ ˆFŸ Š†‹", "Ÿ" ˆ‚œ ˆ Ÿ Gˆ˜ ‹.

‚˜ Q‹ˆF™ † Œ G‚‹ Ÿ ‚A HK, Ÿ ˆF ˜„C F‹. "ƒ™R ŠH™ œ™‹ O † Š†œ, ™ ˜‚C‹ ޡ‹ O œ" (5) P H˜, Q‚ ‹ˆF™ ˜‚C Š† ‚ KYJ™ 17‹ Ÿ‡™ ޼‰ ˜„CŸ Ÿ ‹ Ÿ‹ L C‰J ˜„C‚ ›‰ ƒOŠ A ŸP ‚™ Ÿ :

"˜†C ‹ K Ÿ M…ƒœ M , H… ˆF Ÿ ‚ L‹ Ÿ‹ ‹Q‹ ŸPŸ †„ M‹.

"™ œ, ܫ ˆFpM G ‡ Q˜‚ ‹ JŸM‚Š™, ‹, ‚‚‹ Ÿ‹ ™MJ ‚FˆF, Q˜œ e GO ‚‹, NŸJ ‚Aˆ‹, A›„C GŠˆ™ ŸP™ ޼‰ ‹ š ‹Q‹ Ÿ‹ Lˆ ˜ ŸF™ ޡP ޼‰ P ‹ Ÿ™ ‹ J™. Q ¬ P, ˜œ ܬˆ‹ ˜O ˆFL‰‹, F™ ޼‰ Š‹ ˆFL‰‹ ˆ‚ œA ™, š ˆ ‡ Qˆ  ƒ œ ܬ Mˆ, Ÿ Ÿ A‚ ‡  Q P‰ ‡ ŸŸ ™† îJ™ ƒ‚ Œ‡‹ K‰œ." (Volume 4, p.130)

转 ˆ™ G ŸP ˜‚C M˜ˆ ŠŠ† Pˆœ‹ ƒ‚ ‡F M, Oˆ J ܮŠ OŠ‚œ M…˜ C™ ˆF ˜„C‚ ܶ 裴ˆ ޡP ƒOŠ‚œ 弹‹ ޼‚, ‚K™ Oˆ ‹ ŸP ˜‚C ˆƒO ܮˆƒO™ ‹ 塬 P‰ œ M™. ˜ ⿶:

"˜‚C ‚ †† ‚ ˆ FŠ †, ‡ƒœ ŸP PŠ‚, ‰GŠ™ ‚ ŸP ˆ ™ ‡ƒO N ŸP ˜ ™. ‹ vIˆF ˆ‚ˆ ‚ ‡, L™ ˜‚Š Ÿ O †˜ ݰ‹; , i ‹ Oˆ ˆF †ŠHŸœ QQ˜œ ƒ G ŒœF™ Œ‹ ŸCOL‰ ‹ ˆF™ ‹ ‡ †‹." (xvi)

˜GŠœO ŠH™ i†Š ‹ ŸP ‹ Ÿ F˜œ‹  (, i ‹ ›Ÿ ŸCO™ ߴ†‚‹ Q˜‚ ‡ ˆ) "‚A †˜", ޶ ™ ™, ‹ vIˆ AK Š‚ ‹ ˆ ˆ™ F† ‚Š† ™ œ. (‡J™ ˜‚v, vIˆ ŸP K FŠ ˆƒO™ Ÿ‚‚ ‚ƒœ Pœ˜). ™ ‰ N ‡†ˆFŸ‹ ˜‚C ˆ˜ˆ ˜„C FKˆ‚ ŠŸ‹ ެ ˜ œ. ˜‚C Oˆ ‹ Ÿ ‚ †† ‚A œ ܬˆ‹ ˜ PˆœA˜; ŸP ‡HŠ‹, MK‚‹ L ƒA™ e gF eŒ‹, ˆF™ e M˜‹ ™ ˆFJ‚裶. ‡J™ 1844‹ ‡ ˜‚v ˆF ‚‹ ‹ F‹™" , ‹ ˜‚ ƒO ‚ˆF™ ޼‰ ‰ L ˆ ŸP M˜gF GŠ†™ ޼‰ OŠ†. Q ˆF ‡ vFƒO M‚‹, ܶ ‚Š† ŠH™ ˜ ˆFC HFLˆ Ÿ, ŒJ™ ¬ ˆ ˜‚ˆF™ ޼‰ I‚„ ˆF‹, O ܬˆ ƒO™ ޼‰ (L Ÿ ‡‹ ŒJŸ œ †) Q ™ F‹™, ‡ˆF™ ޼‰ Q ˆF Ÿ‹, HŠ, „ ˜„C AŸPŸ Šˆ ‡ ܮˆ‹ ŒMŸ F‹™ ŠA.

‹ F˜ ˆ™‹

˜‚C M˜ˆF™ Š‹ OŠ IŠ ‰  ޼‰F‹, ˜‚v ˆ™ ŒJ˜, ‡J™ Pˆ‚œM™  CˆKˆ‚†‹ ŸC GGˆ‹ J™, ‚˜ ™†C J™ MA˜. ˜ ⿶: " 'ˆ™‹' F™ ˆ ‹ MˆF™ ¬ ‹, ‹ ŸMˆ‚ œA œ, ˜‚v O ˆ™Fˆ œ˜" (70). M‚ P™, Ÿœ Q˜œ ˆF™ ™A˜; š ™‹ ˆ‹ ƒ‹ ŸA˜; Š𣿶 ˜œ ˆ™FA˜. ˆ ˆ™ ˆFŸ‹ ˆFŸ‹ ެ ޼‚‹ ™ G M˜ˆ ‡ †, ެ‰F‚ ŒJŸ ‚‹ ެˆM‹. ‚K šM‹ ˜C‰, ˜ bM ŠŸ™ ‚F ŸP™ œ ‹ ܬˆ ŒJŸ ‚‹ ‚AJ‚‹ LˆF‚ A.

™ ޶ ‡ ‚A 填죡 ˜ ŒJŸ H„C‚ MJ‚™ M†MA. ™ H„C C‰‚‹ ˆFŸ‹ ެ œ ŸP; F™ W›‚裵‹ M‚œ ŠŠA: M™ ޼‰ ‹ ‰F œ, ™ ˆF™ ޼‰ ‰F J™ A? C‰‚ ‹ œ ™ ˆFŸ C‰ œ? (™ spirit- ˜) ˆ ‹ ™ ™ FL‰ ‰F ޼‚ ‡‹ Q‰ ‡œ ™ ( ˜) ˆ A™ ޼‰ Qˆ ™ ˆ ™™ ޼‚ ? ‡ƒO Š ŸŸ ‰, ‡‹ Ÿ ޼‰? ™ MM™ ϡPœ ‡‹ H„C P™ NJ ™, ‹ˆ  ŸP M‚ ŠA -- , ‰ MŸ Q™ ޼‰ ˆ ޼Š ŸP ‹ P򺮻‹? C‰ ‹ ‡ ŸP ™L OŠ 裴‚ ?

ŒJ˜œ ‰ M‚‚‹ 裴‚‹ Mœ ˜œ ˆ™ I™ ޼‚A ™ I™ œ Ÿ ܮŠ‹. ‹ MˆF™ Šœ e C‰J ‚Aˆˆ Lˆ˜œ, ޼ˆL e F‚‹ ‡œ ‚ ˜œ ˆ™Fœ. ‰GŠ†Ÿ F˜œ, Š‚ e F‚‹ ‡ Lˆ˜œ, ˆF Š ˜„CJ Mˆ A Lˆ˜œ œ™Fœ ˜.

ˆ™‹ ŸP ‚K ‚A ŒJ™ H„C‚ Š‹ ‰F‹. Q˜œ ‰ œA˜œ ‚躮 ‡J™ ˆ™ˆFŸ ܮˆˆ ‡PF™ ˜ ‹ ™‚ PMM™. ƒ™v †‚†œ, "Q˜‚ ‰™ 裴‚‹ ‰Š ‹ ˜ ͬ N ‰ ‡‹ ‹ M˜‚ -- ‡, c˜ ܼ‰ A C ™ ˜ N ‹ ˜ ͬ N„ ˆŠ† FŠF‰ H˜ ͬ N PŠ‹ M A. Q e ‡œ F‚‹ ¬ ͬJ ‹ OŠˆŠ† ˜œ, C‰œ, ‰™œ, MŠƒœ HFLˆ A -- "ˆŠ ‚" OA; ‰ ŠH™ ܬ "ˆ ‚F" A. Š™ Q "C‰Š ‚" HŸA, "C‰Š ‚œ" ™ ™‚ ‡œ Š‚ œ‹ š Q‹ ˜ ˆ™F Š ™, ˜„C‹ š Q‹ HM ˆ™F ; Š™ œ™Fœ ޼‚ ?" (Marx-Engels: Collected Works, Vol.26, Moscow, 1990, p.373)

"ˆ ‚Fœ" ޼ŠŠ ŸP P™ ™ Q˜œ e ŸP ™‚ œ™‹, ˆ™‹ ŸPŸ ެ œ L H„C ™; "ˆ ‚FO" Ÿƒœ Ÿ‹ ™ š PŠ† M‚Š ‹  H„C. FŠŠŒM™, "ˆF" ‹ C‰‚ O, G ޼‚‹ ˆˆF™ œ, ™?

‰ œM‚ ˜„C‹, ˆFŸ IP‹ ˜‚v 裴ˆœ M FKˆ‚ˆ ‚˜ ‹ œ˜. , ŠŸ N ŸP‚ ‹, ‚˜ ‡‹ ˜ FŠH™ ‰œ H¬ (Afterword) ŸOA˜: F™ " ‡J™ K J™ ŒŠO Jœ HFL‚Š†™, ܶ ‹ C‰J™ œ †Š ‹ HFLŠ ™ ‹." ˜‚v Fœ˜. ެŠŸP ‚˜ ‹ ˆ:

"ƒ ˜‚C Ÿœ K‰œ‹  OF™ ŸM‚A. ˜‚CˆFŸ ƒ™v O‚‹ J™ œ P ŸP HFLŠ‚ † ŸP ‹ ˜ OŠ ‚ 裴‚M™. ‰F ˆ Š HFL‚A ‡ ŸP P‹ ˜ ‹ M™." (131). ˜‚C œ™ˆ ‚˜ e‡‹ ‚ Ÿ†, ƒ™RŸ F ¬ ˆ‚ ŠF™ ‰F ˆF †A˜. "Š" ™ ˆŠ Šˆ ŸˆŸ ޿‚Š† L‚裴 ݰ‹. ‰F ˆ C‰ HFL‚A  ‚A H„C ݰ‹. ˆ ‹ ˆ™ ƒO™ HFL‚A Ÿ‚œ C‚™ Œ‰, ‡œ ݰ‹. Q C‰J™ ˜ˆˆF I„C‰ ‚‹, Ÿ gF‹ Ÿ‹ gF‹ G‰‚†† HKˆ‚‹ G›Š‚ ‹ Ÿ‹. ‰‚ PŠH† ˆJ™, " ‡" ™, ‡J™ C‚ ‚ˆ HFLŠ ™ ™†‚ ‡‚A ‚ Ÿ ™. [ܮ‚PŠ-2 ˜‚‹]. J‹ FŠŠŒM™, Q ˆF™ OŠ‹ Ÿƒœ, ‡ƒœ Ÿ‹ ˆŠƒœ A P‹ ‚ ˆ ޼‚‹ G ˜ˆˆF HFLŠ‚ ݰ‹.

‚K™ ŸOŠ‹ ܫ Ÿœ, ˆF H¬J™ (Afterword) ‰œ; F™ ˜‚C ŒJŸ ‡†‹ Ÿ‹ ŠŒ ŸP w †Ÿ ˆF Œ˜ ˜ MKˆ c‡ ŠF‚ H œ. ‰ FŠ Š‚‡ ˜‚v Ÿœ†œ˜. F™ F Š†: "˜‚v ˆF ‚ˆ Ÿ Ÿ G› ܵA˜; ‰G› A MFœ Q Cˆˆ‹ ‹ F†ˆ‹ ˜‰F †™, ˜‚Š™ ‰ Cˆˆ‹ ‹ F†ˆ‹ G˜J‚‹ Œ ‚ œA˜.... KˆF ŸP™ ‹‹ š W›GŠ ˆFˆ A‚A™, Kˆ Š ‡ M˜ Œ„C M ‰ ˆ‹ ™ ‰Š ‹ ܮŠ ‡‚ ™ Mƒ‹. Š„™ œ ‚ ‚î ˆ, gF Š ‹."(Capital, Vol.1, p.27)

ŠˆF ŸO ‚˜ M‹M™

, ŸP ¬ Ÿ ŠŒM™, ˜‚v " L PMˆ‚‡ ܬ FŠˆ OŠ œ" Ÿ ‚˜ Fœ˜. ‡J™ ˜‚v  L MKˆ‚ œ‹ ™; ܬ‹M K‹ ™L‹, "‰ ˆ C‰K ˜"  P‚ ‡˜; Ÿ ˆ™ CK K‹ ޼‰ HK‚‹  ˜ M‚A‚ PM†˜. ¬ NJ Š œ ŸP ˆŒ : "转 O™ ƒA™ ‹ F˜ˆ, ƒ‹ ˆ K‰œ‹ J™, J™ OŠF™ ޼‰˜ CP‹ ˆ GˆM™. Š ˆJ™ ܶ W GŸA. ܶ e‡‹ K GˆŠ‡‹; Š𣿶 F˜‚†Ÿœ œ ˆP˜‰ ˆ ‹ ‡P ‹." (Capital, p.29)

"˜‚v O J™ ˜ ˆ™F" ‚K Ÿ (70), "˜‚CˆF™ ޼‰ † J™ ˜‚v ˜ C‰ ŸP GŸA˜"(179) 1843™ ޼‰ ˜ 1883™ ‹ ˜‚v ‡‰ ŒJ™˜‰ G‚ Ÿ‹ ˆFŸ Ÿ ˆ ‹. J‹ ‰ MˆFŸ ‡Ÿ ˜‚ e‡‹ Š ˆ‹. ¬ ‡˜ Ludwig Kugelmann ‚ ˜„ 6, 1868™ F ‹ P™ ˜ ‹ CK˜ Eugen Dhring ŸP F M˜ˆ (H˜ ƒ™C ŠŸ MŠ M‚A). bM M˜C‚A˜. Dhring "Ÿˆˆ œA˜" P ˜‚v F: " F, ™ ˜ ˆ™F ™, ¬ Œ Lˆ ˜‰ ™ ˜  P˜. 转 ƒA™ F˜ˆ  ŸPH˜ ܬˆ ƒA‚‹ ܮŠ ‹; ™  O ¬ NJ™ ޼‰ A." (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Volume 42, New York, 1987, p. 544, emphasis in the original).

CK˜ ‚˜ ‰ PŠ† ˆ ¬ ˬ ⿶‹ ‡‚M™ ‹ ‹. ܬ ‚E‚ˆ ˜ Œœ˜. šMˆF™ ˜‚v Dhring Ÿ F ŠH Ÿ„† I‹ ˆ J™ ‚˜ ŸP‹ M‹.

˜‚v Y˜FˆF?

Šˆ Š† ŸPˆ ƒ™v Ÿ‹ ˜‚CˆF‹ ޼‰ ˜‚ HK‚‹ ŸC, ܫˆF™ ˜‚ L ˆ™F † ‚˜ ‚ ‡œ ‹ ? Š †C‚ ޼‰ ¬ ‰ ˆ‚ ˜‚v ˆF ͡‹ ˆF™ GKˆM†˜ "FŠ†‹ ˆF ‡Hˆ" ¬ ˆˆF MŸ ‹ ‚˜ J™, Ÿ M A. "† ƒ™ GˆŠ‹ ‰F‹ A; œ Q˜‚ GJ™ N e †Š GŠF™ œ. ‡ œ, ޡ‹ Nœ ‹ ˜ˆF ŒŠ ‹ ‹, J ‚ Ÿ ޼‚‹ ‹, Ÿ Š™ ˜‚v Š𣿶 ‹ ‰FˆF ‡‹ œ. Ÿ ˆ ˆ™ ݫ ‹, ŸP ‚, ‡ ‰F‹ G ‰F ‹ AŠF™ œ †PŠ †A˜" (173) ‚˜ Fœ˜.

H ˜‚C™ ޼‰ c‡MˆF™ Ÿ裬 ‚˜ 裴‚A˜:

"Cˆ‹ A™ ˜‹ G˜J‚Š‹ Š ™Ÿ Iˆ œ ‰FˆF †C ƒA. šM‹ ™ ܶ œ gF ŸˆFˆ‚ ŠŸ†‹. Š †I‡ ‹ G Œ œŸ‹ › ˆ ŸˆF Œ œŸ‹ Ÿ ™‚ G ‡, K Q‹ Šˆ Œ ‡‹; ™ ܬŠ‚O‹, ˆF ™ ŸˆF O‹ G ޶. K Q ˜„C ܬ† K O M F CˆF ‰ †C MK‰ ™A. ™ ܫ ‰ˆ G Œ‹ ŸˆF ‚F‹ FKˆ„ ™A. ‰ˆJ™ ‰F‹ Š† Q; †ˆ ŸˆF˜œ Ÿ KŸˆ P‚‰ NJ™ A‚ˆ ܬ‰F캮‹; ˜œ ŸJ †„ ‚F™ ŠŸ F™ Ÿ ƒO ‚ †Š†Ÿ W›Šˆ ‡‹; I‚ ‰ M™ Ÿ M†‹, ƒœ Q ™‚ I„, IŠ ˆ G‚††‹ „F‚ ‡‹ ™ ޶ ޡ‹ CˆF †C ޼‰ A. ŸŠ™ ‹A ‰FˆF ‡ †C, ‚‚ ‡ ŸL ˜„C, ‹ CˆF †C ܮˆ ‡ ‰FˆF †C ˆ‚ ƒ ‹. - ‚ Š Ÿ ܮŠ ."(Rockmore 173; passage appears in Capital, Volume 3, London, 1974, p. 820).

‚K™ ŸOŠ† ‰Š ˆF J™ ƒ 裴ˆœ; Q™ Š𣿶 ˜œ ˜‚v ‡J™ F˜ ‡ ¬ MŸ ‚˜ ‰ GŠˆŠ ƒ b˜Qˆ‚ œ ‹.

"‰„ CŠ ŠF ŸP Š ‹. ‹QˆFŸ ‡œ H˜, ƒ ܬ ˜‚v OŠ, ‡ Q ‰FˆFŸ G‰ MA˜ I‹ OŠ‹. ˆF ‰ †ˆ P F™ ‰F‹ ‹ ‚ ŸA™; †CJ ‹ ܬŠ‹ ™; ™ › GJ™ ܮŠ Ÿˆ Y˜F‰ˆ‚ ‡F™ œ. ‚‚ P™, ˜‚v ƒ †C Y˜Fˆˆ™ HFf ŒA˜." (173)-‚˜ PŠH.

‰Š ˆF ŸP ‹ Š ‹ ‰ˆFŸ IP ‡; ™ ‚˜ ⶾ‹ KJ™. ‰ ŠFJ™ Y˜FˆˆFŸ †C GK‚‹ ‡Ÿ ŸK š ™‚‹ F˜Š𣼬 裴ˆ™ ‹ ޼‚A. "‰F‹ ‚Š† Q, P‰ ŸˆF˜œ A˜ Ÿ ƒœ PŸˆ ˆP˜‰ J™ †ŠˆF, ŸJ †ˆ Ÿ™™ Š†M™, ‚ †Š†Ÿœ ‡ ‡‹" ˜‚v HŠˆA˜. ޶ ܬˆ ‚F‹ G‰ ‰ Š ‡œ ‹ G‹ Oˆ ŸˆF ‚A PF ‹ ܬŠ ‹; ‰ ܮŠJ™  ‚ ˆ‚œ‹ Š‚‹ Œ‹ ‹ ‡ ‚ ‡ ‡ˆFŸ Š™ Q¬ Šˆ FO ˜„C‚ ‹ O™ œ ‰F‹ MK‰ GŸ‹. ŸJ™ ޼‰  ŠH ›Ÿ‹, Š‚‹ ŒŸˆ Ÿ Q ‡ ˆF™ ޼‰ ‰F‹ ‹. EˆF‹ ‰ œ ‹ ‡ˆF™ CP CP ‰F‹ F‚‹ ˆ‹ ܮŠJ ܶ ޼‚‹. ™ ܶ ‰F‹ ܬŠ†M†Š œ ; ܶ‹ Oˆ ŠHŸœ Fˆ . ‚˜ 裴‚‹ ܴˆ ˆFŸ ŠˆFJ™ ޼‰ ‹ ‚ 裴‚裶.

"NŠ ˜‚C‹ ‹ Y˜FˆˆFŸ †‹ Š𣿶 MŠ ‚ˆ ‡œ. J‹ ‰Š ŠFJ™ ˜‚v, Oˆ ˆF ‡ ˜ G›Š‚œe †Š† Q˜œ e‡‹ œ ‹ ™, Ÿ NŸ ‹ ‡ Q ‰F‹ ެ‰F‚‚ ô‹ ‹H‚ 裴ˆœ˜." ™ ›Me ˆP˜‰ †Š Oˆ J™ ݰ‹; ‹J W› ‚ ‰™ ŸP Qˆ ܬŸ W›Š Œ ݰ‹.

Ÿ ‹, ƒ™v, ˜‚C‹ A ™ ˜‚CŸˆ ‚˜ FA˜; FJ™ ޶ LŠ †C ™ ˜‚v, W †‹ P™™ Mƒœ Ÿ ‚‹ †ˆŠ† "˜‚v" AMA.

‰ Œ‚ CP ˜‚ ‡ CA. Marx After Marxisim ‹ ™ OJŠ† H˜ The Philosophal Challenge of September 11 (Blackwell Publichsing, 2005) ™ CK˜ ‚K FŠHW› ‰œ. ‚‹ Š ˜L‹ ެ‰ F ‰L ¬J™, ‹ WœŠ ‚A‹:

" H™ ‹ P‰ NŠ 9/11 G› ŸP ˆ œ ™ šM œ ŠE‚ ‹ M‚ ‡œ. ŠŒ‚ Mœ ŸP Q ‹ F‚ Ÿ ™. ...‹ P‰œ C™ ŒJ™ ‹ ‰M† ™ A, ‚ ˆF™ Ÿ ŒMA.

"ˆ‚ G Ÿ ‚‹ MK‚‹ ܬ‰œ ‹ A. ‹ K‚Š† ˆŒ ˆƒœ ܬˆ‹ 9/11 G›M™ ‹ Šˆ ܬ‰œ. †O™ Hˆˆœ‹ ˆ ˆF ˜‚Š†M†. ‹ F˜˜‚ J™ ‹ MƒO‹ PM†. ‚ M OŠ ˆ‹ J™ 9/11 G› ‹ ˆ‚ . K‰ œ‹ ƒ ܬ ‚A; Nœ ‰ 裴ˆ K ‚ ‹ ‹ ." (3)

˜ˆˆ F˜œ‹ ˆ˜ˆ L‰G, ˆFpM F™J Š™ ‚ ެM „K‹I‚ ‹Šˆ ‹ Ÿ Œ. ˆ™˜™ ˆ‚œŠ† Mƒœ ˜ˆ ˆ Cˆ †I™™ 2,500 ‡ ˜ ˜‰ Ÿ‹ ŒgF ˜„CŸ ŒJ™ C‰‹ CˆM† ‹ ‹‡‹ CK˜ ‚˜ F˜˜‚A˜.

9/11 G›‚ QˆJ™ Š K‰œ G 裴ˆ ŸP ‚˜ M™. ‡ Š ˜O ƒœ, T‚O NŠ (Holocaust), vLQˆF Š, ‡ ܵ‡œ Š†, J‚‚ I™L ‚O J˜‚ ˆ J™ ˆ GMJ‰ ‚Aƒ †I‡ˆ ™œ A ޼‹ Ÿ‡™ Ÿœ; Š‹˜ 11, 2001™ ‰ G› ˆ H™ G›O™ ޼‰ Šˆ Qˆ? ‰O G› M F, ޶‹ Ÿ ŒF‚ G› ‚ G›œ OŠˆF?

˜‚CˆF e ‚K ‚™ ޼ˆF‹ Ÿ‡ ™ C™ ‰F‚ Ÿ GJ™ œOM†œ OŠ‹. "˜‚CˆF" ˆ H‹ ŒH˜, L ˆ™ˆ ˜‚v ˆ ˆ˜ˆ J™ PH›‰ ˜‚C Š H‹ Œ H˜, ‚˜ Ÿ ˜ˆˆ Œ‰ MƒA‚œŸ Ÿl ˆ˜ˆ †Š ‡HŠF™ ™MŸœ˜ O.

Ÿ

ܮ‚PŠ‚œ

[1] ™F‹ L 贬 F˜Š CK˜ ‹v ˜I ( ˜ "Q C‰Š ‹ ŠˆFŸ †ˆF ‰M† ˜" ‡ˆF‰˜) gF FL‚J™, ††vA ‹ ˜Q ŒJ‚ ‹ †˜: "˜M‚‹, ˜‚‚‹ ™ ™ F˜. H…Š †C C‰‚ 裴ˆF‰ ‚FŒ‰ ‚ˆF™, ™ M…ˆF ‚ˆ  F˜˜ˆF‰˜. ™ JI‰ ‹, ܶ F˜˜Šˆ ‹, L‹ ܶ ˜ ˆ™  Ÿ. ˆ™ G™, ܬ F ‡ ™ F ™ ™†˜. ‰ ˆ™ G™œ ˆ †O ‚ƒˆ HFL‚A ˜‚v G‹ Œ˜." (In Defense of Marxism [London: 1971], p. 66). ††vA ‚ˆF™ 1939-40™ OŠ† †HKŠ L FJ™, ˜‹ L C GKˆ ¬ Iˆ bM C™ œ˜„C ƒA˜. (F‹H ŸF‚ ™‹)

[2] ¬ L ˜‚M™ M…ˆF e ‚ FŠd (Conspectus of Hegel's Science of Logic) ™ Q F: "P ŸP M… ˜‚‹. ܶ P ŸP † ݰ‹. Q ŸJ HFLŠ P ݰ‹. ™ ޶ ‹ ˆ O, , HFLŠ ™; ˜„C HKˆˆ™ G›‚‚A , ˆŠƒœ, †ƒœ AŸP ‚‹, ˜„C ŸP ˆ ˆŠƒœ, †ƒœ A (C‰, M…‹ = '˜‚gF ˆ') MF‚ ††, A†ˆ† Š𣿶‹ ܬ‰‡‚‹, ‹ ŸJ ™‚ˆFŸ‹ ‰‹  A. ‡ ƒ G ͡ ˜œ œ: 1) Ÿ; 2) QQ P‹  = Q ͬ (ܫ ŸJ I ˜‰ Mœ), Ÿ‹ 3) Q PM™ Ÿ HFL‚‹ Š; ‰ Š ™L ˆŠ ƒœ, †ƒœ, HKœ AŸ‚ ‡œ. Q K‰œ = C‰FˆŠ ˜‚ = Ÿ ˆ‹ HFL‚, ' ' HFL‚ ; ™ Ÿ ܼ裬J™ Š𣿶‹ ‰, HKˆˆ, ˆŠ ƒ, †ƒ, P˜‰ J™ ŸP CˆFˆ b† Ÿ Œ ‹. (Lenin, Collected Works, Vol. 38 [Moscow, 1972], p. 182, ܿˆ‹ ˆF™ œ).

Ÿ ŠFJ™ Q PŠHA˜: "P , 𣼬Š ŸP C‰J Š𣿶œ M™ ܵ‹. QQ C‰J™ Ÿ ŸP HFLŠ "JŸ J™" ™™, "ܼ" ™™, ‚‹ ŸP‹ N‰ ™™, ‡œ ™ ™™, ™ ‚ˆF ެ G›Š‚A™, ‡‹ ŸPŸ b˜‹ Œ †‹ K‰‡ ‡‹." (Ibid, p. 195, ܿˆ‹ ˆF™ œ). (F‹H ŸF‚ ™‹)