Castroism and the politics of petty-bourgeois nationalism
 


WSWS : Tamil

A lecture by Bill Vann

މ MK, K 7 1998 񣘂C꺋 ޼ ˟ ܮ H H L C CQJ (ܾvFL) 心 裬 ꣬J .

Bill Vann L F CK . F H F ܪK, ݊HK, F A 崂 O P PH M 승 F. K MK ރ HKA.

މ ꣟NM 輊𣼜, YM މFM C O ͫ C P H G C P M ޡ 裬 ꣟NM ⿊ M I辋 옹. ޼ ˟ bQF N F L  P 񣘂C 򣽋 製 ݟ b F P މ OJ FL ܈FC HC vJ P ݌ ެJ 옄C ޼A.

vJ F 輊 ޼ A. 裋 AF P F A ނ 装! N Q ̘ O ޡP L C G , N F𴈶 vJꈬ Lꈶ F ; C ޡ A.

ܪKM M v  F F N F C 숬 M, HA O OF O C FO M 裴. ܚ ޼ ˟ HFJ N I辋 M F ꌶ M.

މ A F 裋 AF ܬ肰 M裴 숬 . 񣘂C ܮ,  C ݻ 辋 裂辋 . 񣘂CvO E 옹 I ܈FC H މ F .

񣘂Cꈬ 致H, MK  G G G蛾𣂰 K補 N 𣘈 F . މ  G G G蛾 𣂰 N F Lꈶ 숶 A GF. F O ޼ ܙ H ޼, O FF F M F O 般 ܮ 裇 C C 膴F LF ܬFA 裈.

35 ݇ H vJꈬ QJ, މ MF K ޼ 𣴬 ޼A. vJ Lꈶ F A? ܙ ܶ P, N F PA ? NF F ̘ C EJ F F MF M ޼? N 舶 މ ͫ F H e𣘬 H މ ꣟NM  ⴈ 補.

1. ````J J

݌ H 𣼈 , vJꈶ 裆, K A 캬 I A ⴈ裆辋 F蛉 v E  ݇ G P ܇ M ݰ. ܇ O ݘM H K , MM E𣘂 J J 臫죋. bMF , ‚H KA ML 𣼜 AJ. (image) . Mv K v, ``C`` ‹ FK (model) 塬 K 舫 裇 . M𴈶 IP C..  d M  .

ݘM GF M 裇 SQ MFK Y F 舶 O 裘v ꣃ躋 , `` `` ݘQ`` M G ܅ OJ.

v ݆C ޚM O ߴ. ܶ ܇J, M L C LMML F 裇 . 膴 ‹ śG‹ A𣾂 e 裇 . A ꣃ O bMF `` M . C E ꉬF, "讂 A F F I F F A.

܉ 혾 ݂A ```` F ݂A𣶋, b ? ܶ K ܬ  P. E, F, 嶃A CF ܘE. ެ ܬ ޼. QQ F 補 bQ G PM򽂰 P F ꉫ ޙ. މ O裆K C F MF P裆 ޙ.  C ވ 裇 FA ꣉, H𣂰 F A K 󺮻. M P ݌, C 輈 񣘂C I , ܬ 裆 ݻ K YM NF C L F ܮ gF .

````J 輈F ܇ JH ެJ, K P F . C CK x vQ (Jorge Castaneda) h ܇ (John Lee Anderson) ‹ ܪK A򣼬 ˙, AC M MF 컋 𣘂 𣘬 , 񣘂C C ݌M MF M. Q‹, ފO ````J P M G O ܵ C A O OA.

މ G蛾O AJ C 辋  F辋 裆 裇, OF F F ⴈ裆컋 輈 ܘ 옉 , O 𣂰O H C ޼. CK މ F 𣘬 F F. ﴈ bMF I ,  P  M 臫 P C M 𣌬 񆴫 MKî ꘈ 裇.

A ܪKM L N C C, A ꣃF ܽ gF G M J FLA. ވLJ ܫA LM (Livio Maitan) ܙ ݘM MAS , vLQꈶ v ݆C C Fh A裆A.

A H ܇ C Of ``J ``, M`` 蛉, ``N N‹ , K M FL Q, C N C 膴 F ‹ ܶ C gF MKL OF`` A. C N O ? MOF ܂ 補M. ܬ HK , މ 𣂰 Q, vLQ, KJ F Lꈶ 숬 O裆A M F H F A.

J F މ O𣆬, v ɂAi A FK C vM (Fulgencio Batista) 裵 F . ``AM `` H , vM 26  M G ܬ A N M . ޼H‹ v P H, 숬 Q F FKJ H .

O C (alchemy), M N N C A H肰K O ޼ 񆴋 ޼M ܙ ޡ‹ L ꣡ ޡP ޼.

K 𣂰O HK K, vJ J P ݌ , C  C H ܙ  ݇ F F ܪKM KJF F G 킬 ܂ 補M.

܉ MF E, ܉ N F C FF辋 N F A򈶂辋 F ܮ 裇  񆴫 .

2. O L (F) O C

F F, ﴈ bMF, ܈ ܵ M ޼A. ܬ CM, CC (Chiapas) v (Zapatista) C M F  ܫ 󣆴 C LM 죇 Q 般 F ܉ ႰM.

LK JF ⿄C ``ݻ F`` L C ňF 裇죴F 補M. ܬ O F C L CJ 裇M. O C 裇A K, ܈ 輈 F c 裇A.

N Fœ C J A H b NM. މ F C F 辋 O bM  ܬ N MJ Lꈶ FL FF NA.

vA GC F MK, L CJ ͫ H O M ޼O ݛ . ``CK C ``, ``ݻ`` ``c `` A CJ E F A Q  C C ެJ 옹 ? HA O 崂 O F N F F ެJ ? ܊F  N F F ެJ 옹 ? P M MA.

O bM 죽 H, ޚ M 辋 ޚ F 輈 P GA.

O F F C 숬 F C O F 崂 冴 W𴈶F N 죘.

މ ܘF މ bM ޼A H. F ݌M ܬ L C F FFF C ޼A. ``J ꣉ O iK 裇 F 補 K 補 F裬 , O, C KJF މ ܮ .

M MRTA C vv AP C 󣌉, O C ݆CO, O FFF gF 制L M ޼A. M PJ MAJA. Q 般 J, HTK (Fujimori) ݆C e 꽈F 補 𴈶 Q FF򈶂 ܿ 裴 P裬 裇. F P H킬F H C 옹 裇 𣆮 GF. ܶ  ݻ A FL gF O C C P補 .

v죬 𣼈 މ P . Q ܶ FL M C P補 MM. 񣘫v K K ,  O K ޼A. މ K O , PRI K FC PAN ݙ . 񣘫裲 v죂, C N 舶 崂 MJ C  , O C 킬 b 補 ޡ M P裇

3. O F C F

ފ O C F  MK  F ܘ𴈶A? ܶ 񣘂Cv O FO e i ܬN ܙ. ܶ ޚM H裆 NO M 򣰋. 񣘂v 1848 CJ F ܮ 裇, vA G C F O숶 F 옄C C MA. 옄C C  ¬ ެ GJ HFL𣰋. F H ޼ ެJ 裇 KFL 옄C ܶ  F 裇. މ P O 般 ܙ O 般 H ܶ GF.

𣼂 H F FF F ﴈ 般 A, ꣘F . ܬ O ޶ FO 裘 ܽO N, F ꣘ O E GA 옹 숶 A 裇.

崂 O  dM P K , FF Q F般 ݆C F . FF 崂 F, b ܪKM މ  , O O -K G M I辋 ޼. O J K , 𮊹O IPJ. P QC C ܬ M ܙ CP E C NO M M. މ  މ O O CL H ܮ ޼.

ݬ ``F `` O F G ܮ ޼. F Lꈶ N F ̘ C E򣽋 , bM OF 캮. FJ މ F ňF, މ PH  C, FF O C ܄ ެJ ެ FF A ޚM컋 HFLA.

4. A CJ E

嚪 K G蛄C , H v J C, HMFO 裇. F O F FJ vM 𣴋 C ޚ E, vJ P C A 般 K ݌ .

AM ,  M 輄C . ܶ ¬ ܉v J vQ QF JL ⿉ 裇 ܪK FFF C Q F I J P.

1898 AM ܪK J 옉 A FF . A辋 b辋 ޼. Kv 𮂬J vQ QO ޼ MM. 𣆮 A 蟹 ޙ.

H 𣆴 (Platt Amendment Republic) . ܪK K މ , L SQ G. H A C ܬ ެ ꘂ. M 𮂬肰 A ܪK b MM 輶 컋 F ꘂ. ܶ gF ܪK J K 𴈶A. ``A F 裂, , ꣈ Q F 裂, ꣃ般 K Kv 𮂬 FE A G`` ܪK A  މ ``K`` މ ˟ FF 𴈶 F 裇A.

ܪK FFF e A ꣘F H bF 싪 ܙ. ܶ ܪK ꉬ A ꘂ FJ AJ. މ J bM FJ A 裇 𣽋 C ܪK A  F . 輋 񆴫 JK 𣡬 𣡬 HA G, 㛬 J "讂 H. AM G C C M O F 膴A. gF ޼ AM ܬQ ܉v ޼A ܫ, ܶ MF QC ܙ.

죋 軈 G蛾e 裋 A K : `` C F C Q . ܿA 裇 O P FF O CA HA O F, ܬ L ޼. C ݆C, O ܿF AW M M J F FF M."

L C OJ FF 崂 裇 ꣈FI P ꣙L A. ``ݬ Q O M P H 冴 NO M HM I F 膴A. O N O ݆C 膮, H A  ꘉ, O ܙ, 舫裌 򂰋 F F 心 ꌻ 𣿶 񆴋 Q  C gF辋 gF辋, gF辋 M ``.  𣘂A AM ܴ މ ݌ FJ GHA. N F A ޡP , C M 裴 GH.

ܪK A  A𣾂 ެJ , FE F ܮ  O C ܬ  N. ܪK F F. G 󇮽 O PO F舶 ꘉ A C  ᆮ . ܶ M ܪK F CJ ޼.

J‹ AM ޡ P. 1925 A Qv C ͡ A A 裇 ܬ. I A Q L ܡQ (Julio Antonio Mella) . ޼, 1920O F YF F A, N F C.

󣘫 ꣫M (Gerardo Machado) FF F F A. ꣫죬 `` LQ`` . F CJ, O ܿF W MM죘. H M Q‚, 𣾂, F C裾 .

1929 CM Qv C P 裇, vLQ F F vAJ F H . H 裬 죘. , ꣫ FF ܫ J,  蘈 vLQv ꉫ躋 GM.

bM G C ܬ ܶ ܪK FF F   C A P pMO FL AJ. J‹ ܃ GM C 輈 M, L CF 裇죘.

܈ A ܮJ, AM H ꣉b N vLQ . ݬ H v󣾋 A Qv C ެ F , ``H v ݆C F󈶂 vLQ M. A 񣘂CvO ﲂ , vLQ bM O CF C ‚ 裇 .

މ OJ ꣟NM,  `` G蛉`` `` `` 裇M, ޡ‹ ꣙ l ICJ. M ? M? F G 裇F G蛉F? M PH MAJ. ޫ M CP MJ‹ A 辋 . G蛉F   ܃ . AM Qv C ޼F C މ M F F F . J‹ ܃ A N F C C ޼F, A vLQ C F, P vJ ‹ 𣂰  ꣈FI ޼F  F .

AM Qv CJ vLQ YNM  C "讂 裇. 1933  ⿄C, ꣫ FK M GF. މ F N  G N꣬, 輋 ݬ v솴 .

𣶫 G bM辋 M , O F ꌶ 裇 A Qv C, G ܪK f ɇ H ꌶ 裇, F􂰄 ꙽ ݬ HH. 𣡬 N ݬ C , Qv C J‹ O승 裇 F󈶂 , C 꽬 M ꣫죾 C  . ꣫ 򘉶  񆴫 ޼ މ , ܴ ޼ ݇ Qv C H ܬ ޼. vLQv O C‹ ݆C‹ K Æ ܫ, N F O 옉 裇. 1940O vLQv ܪK 𣆮v (Batista) ꣃF .

5. v󣾋 vJ꺋

vLQ K C‹ F‹ 裇 Æ . FF F C P 죙, bM ﴈF, C FO ; P F 裇. މ L H v 般 H.

vQ G F H v, G OJ F C 옉. ܃ H󣃫M Cꈶ O vQ O A . O 輈, vQ Cv CJ G ܡQ HK K (Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera) ⿈ 𮈶, C C ߘ .  O O F 꽈F ݻ A O ߴ죘. މ O C C C Q F ޼.

𣆮v죾 F F, v O C ݘ죫죂 CJ G. ܉ ݇ 𣆮vM ݆C M M J. H ݻ F HO C A. 1953 J J FJ e  A. F ޼ P 裙 ܙ CH.

vM Q ޙ. މ C O HKO ݆, 裆 J e , 裬 C 𣆮v J쾋 . 1959 C ކ މ F vM C PO C 𣆮v F A C CLL 𴈶 ޼A. I芹蛪 `` ⡬ M ꌻ`` . 諣  P A  裈 補 K ܚ, FKJ 崂 心 F, YFO 裇.

CP C H, v C裾 , 1956 M 80 ݻ F ݆ AM K . 죫, vM 산 L 12 񆴫 C.޼H‹ H ݇O v ݆C F P.

݆C F vM KO O M Q ܉ bM C gF F ޙ. A N F C J P C P GM. vM YF 񆴊 ޼H‹, 補, vLQv 裆 F bM ޼. ݻ , ܬ 𣶋, A vLQv F󈶂 쉬 ޼ 𣿶, ܬ O ܉ . vM , ܪK A 制 ܬî ޼. ݆C  H ܪK A   H P: " Qv ܙ O辋 F辋  PJA. AM N C O Q F F MA. ܪK A  K혬 ܬ M ܬ P ".

A  M M YF 裇. O ܶ G MG ; O ; LO FK ; M F 裇. P S 裇M. ܪK A  v ܊ ܿF N 裇 MH. A ꣃ舶 裇F, ܶ AM J ̈́ ꘂ F 嶂W , H ⇪ . F A ꣃ, L ܪK ꣈ CA.

H A ꣉ G CA. ܶ M FF M辋 FH. ܪK A O 補 贬  M辋 NN 辋 ޼. HK I辋 J ܫ HMF 肪裇. ⡂, 裇 HK O bM L 죙 ޼ މ HFF HKw FFF 軋 裈. ܪK A O 񣊹 죜  ݇ vM ݆C H ɇ ޼F GH. ܶ A CF ܃ 裆補 F A FH FFF M ņ .

vM FH, v A vLQv‹ Æ A 裇죘. މ 蘾 CJ bML L J ô PP F O . ܶ ܉ ⶾI.  𣘈, AM L C [Popular Socialist Party] ܊ vLQv P, H A C F ޼. ܶ AM ܊F O ܬH F HFGFF, 𣆮v ݆C I M .

 F M ݆CF󈶂 v, F LC FH. C, F A. A vLQv C A. ݆C . v H CL  " G" Qv ޼ 𣶋, 𣆮v ݆C M "񣘂Cv QQv" AJ H . J PH  A F 裇, O LC M般 G .ܶ H v  񣘂Cꈬ CJ 致H. ݬ  ݆C H ܶP F 裇죘. F ݻ F Q F  A O C 裃AC HF ߴ J C , L C G K F F C .

v󣾋 ܫ O CF "񣘂C QQF" 죘? O, N ꣉ C M N F 숶 N裆 M M. ܫ ܶ vMI 裇 ﮊM F񣰋. vLQvOI 裇 񣘂C QQ , C 𴈶 F M Q 補 .

P C , ⡪ C CJ C e O ꣉ 膴𣆬 G𴈶 , F 致 裇. vLQFI 裇 ܮ C򣃫 C I죃A FK 裇죘 G .

6 KJF 膴

F H F P C 𣂰 , J vJ꺋  C P  膴O AJA. ܈ މ ܬO  裴 M . ެ O C O F A ޼ 裇, ܫ  崂 HFGF A.

݆C H v󣾋 H P C v O (Sierra Maestra mountains) K ݻ F C M A 裆A: FE bF FF C O gF , 𣆮v (Batista) FK ɂAiC H N F: `` K F  ܅ 裇 CP G P 補  ⴈ裆JA. (b) ܪKM ޡ H .  gF ܫ M JO  MC . OO, O ރA C ⴈ ``. H  C 죶.

މ AΊ CJ F̘ M. P bM FK HFGF𴈶A. vM ݇ ݆CJ 20,000 A ꣃF O JM. 19,000 A O 裙. G, C G F 𣡬, vM 26 F 膴𣆴 OJ . ܬ M MK M FJ ꣃF iC A ɇM A.

vM K 𣽋 C J . ܃ 裵 ޙ. K G蛄CJ ߴ 200 K ޙ. v A O , S A 󇮡 . A O F 𣡬 FJ v K. S v ꣃF e ݻ ݬ FE މ M ޙA. ޶ M C .

AM FF i vM K ܪK FF  般 讈 膴, F C F . ܶ ܬ ݆C F 𣆮J J vM O M. ꣃ般 膮𴈶 GF.

v  膴 N M F M. A , b ܪK C F ꣈F . ꣃ ɂAi꾋 崂 쾋 , E C A F N J F ܪK ެ 裬  N.

M H ⿈ `` Kv``(Guerra de Guerrillas) ܙ K މ A ͫ򈶂 芹 . ܶ ``ܪKM C O F``(mechanics of revolutionary movements in America) ޟ A ͡ F H MK A.

1. F F .

2. C ܬ G ܈FC , J (K EJ ) .

3. C HA ܪKM ݻ F H  F  ޼.

މ ⿈ 裇 CP C ݌ Q bM L ݰ. b ܪKM C ݇ O ޼ . b ܪKM 崂 A ܮ IC𣡬J O G MA산 F (Latifundia) ܙ, L P O ݰ. ެ 裇 ނ 裇.  O AJ A FJL  ކ .

݌ M. C K K 𣼈 A F A ⴂ F G蛾 . މ P H 裴O H HO F ܪK Q  M CA 補F .

M CL e O N 般 C GK N 崂 C gF 裇 M O ꣉ 숬 F F E.  ݻ 숶 ꣈F N ܫ, MJ KO ܮJ EF󆴋 M ܶ ޙ.

M 輈 `` ܬ F󈶂 , H𣂰 O F H F AN``. O ꣡ K M MJ F 崂 APM. MJ F ꣃ舶 F 숬 K.

܈ 숶  J, C J. N 崂 O I肰 f . b ܪKM K 膴 J, ܬ ܬ C 􉶬 M ݻ FF 𣆮 F ܮ 裇 LF.

7. F M

M, E ޼.  H ݘM FK x ꆮ (Jorge Masetti) J W K `` ܬ. J P ފ MJ P  M ݇ A. K 弫𣶋 F 󣮊 𣘂M. C C 裆 Q . hO O 񣆮. F N J‹ ꆮ ͡ H 心W F K MF ݬJ죘.  ͡ މ "J HH PH CK 補 裆A. ꆮ vJꈶ Æ 補 , ݘM FbM K C F F H ޼FA P.

J ꣉ LM ޫ F. O I辋 PH Q, ܉ ޼ C GP ܂J򣰋. 1951 LM CJ I辋 FI EA (Tin) N, ܉ F O GO ߴ ‹ L ߴ. PH މG蛾 ꣉ 肰 H G 񆴫 P. LM N  ܙ 補 A. LM MJ 𣼈 ݻ 샰 F. K K ޙ, FH.

LMM v F v Qv CJ A. މ 弫𣶋 M vLQv v F K 臮 QF J ޼H P ܪK AJ ꣆.

޶ î ޼A. LM Qv CJ F C (Monje) .T.H. Q. M H vM G CH M죘. vGC (Castaneda) P ޼ O, b ܪKM H Qv C ܬF, 1940- vAJ 裬O F A ݆ HF F ꌶ 裇 . M 裊F C FO , މ C vML M裬 GFΆ GM. M F C GFM .  S ꣉ 򣰋.

M ܈ 裆 裴 J J M. C ޙ, ޙ, ݻ F ݆ ܊HFF 裇 C 輈 ⴈ ⴊH N . C O LM  P 춋, , v (Bertrand Russell) (Jean Paul Sartre) A򣼂 M  FI. މ F J i ޶.

8 A𣾋 裋 A

裋 AF P A C b F GHM. ܪK F L N C, O C vLQꈶ  P ܬ񈶂 裇   F F E F ݟP.

1953- F F F AH, 裊 H L NC,  H C, H v O CF F P O Fd ܮJ A ꌶ 裇. AM FF C. ܮJ ܶ N AM bQ. v 躮, N F F C 躮 .

މ A𣾂 ܊𣽋 M 裇A. 1939-40 M P e M vA 裆, 嚪 M H E ޼A. A N C ņ P 補, 񣘂CL  L C P  輈 補.

AM F K J O M. ܶ N M 옹 ޙ, O O C 裇. N F ꣃ般 ܬF M PH F PM. ܬ, e M NO 膴𣆬 G CJ ܶ ߴF.

܈ ``N `` F𴈶, A 裇. N F C ܬ gF FF 񣘂C   숬 M ܶ ܘF.  F ܶ C N 般 W𴈶 LF ܬ 裆. ܶ O F ϡP v F, K C F ޼ô. L C A 숶; 裋 AF C EF, M N ܙ. ܶ F A N P JL ៪î E𣰋.

A HMF 񣘂CF 裄 AJ. A H ♬ Y ``༄C N `` L I辋 G vA  , M 𣆴O ⴈ.

d 裆, މ MO L N C މ gF H 裆 ``༄C`` ‹ K ꣙e L . މ , vLQꈶH C ݟ ܘ𴈶 F C FF.

J‹ , M I辋 EJ, A K ܼ F, C , ܶ N ‹ JF C F M .

N C FM H Fe M 膴𣆬컋 肪補M, ެ A C F補P ⴈ補 , ޶ ޡ‹ M, M M C .

܉ P: ``A ꣃ N, i MJO 辡C O ݆C ޡ‹ GM. J‹ ܶ LF A  𣂰 GHFA. ܶ ݻE辋 ܬ辋 C O ܬ F񣌂 輈 O ݶ FA. މ J vLQꈶ A OI , ܶ î GJ ޼A.

``A C F HMF F죙, ¬ 芫𣂰 F IP O O F N. ݬ C , ܈ 𣂰 H .

AM  b C O 裆CJL I辋 . A vAv M J ﲂ죘. O CJ죘 FK ﲂ. A 컋 M F C F cF CJ ܬ숶 F މ b c ޼ A. 26 F vM 装 .

J‹,  G𣆮L Q Fd I辋 î ܋, O죙 v ݆C O F 𴈶. N ܙ w C ެ툶 ꣡ M򈶂 𴈶.

N FF ܈ , O CF ݆CJ L 죶 ܙ 죶. ܈ ܬ񊹂, ܬ v, H ܙ  q A , ܬ 𣘆 ݆C M 辋 弫𣶋 ޼M. N  EF, O ɂA iC, F O F G 񆴫 N ܙ M򈶂 .

Q‹ 𣙫M ݆C F P H, M򈶂 NO M. ޡ‹ ꣙, ܶ F󈶂 숬 NF. މ w O 芫F CJ ܮJ, w 񣘂CvO FI bQ f C M ܮJ ݆C A.

vM C轂 񣘂Cv QQv 숶 F ܮE, G CJ G투 裇A.

F  옉 O , 崂  𣡫 A𣾋 F ܘF GCJ F A. ⃰ N 舶 C C ޙ, 崂  ܶ F , C O F O CFO HFGF , ꣉ bMFE辋 A. , , , , 蘫, Fv (Nasser, Nehru, Peron, Ben Bella, Sukharno, the Baathists) H F Q vI ܮF GM ꡮQv죂 A މ G蛾 A ⴈ裆 . J ެ P C 轋 캬.

1961 L N C v...ݙ. (Socialist Labour League) Š FF HKw vAv Q F 贬 MC.

"܈ C O A F𼂰 vAvO ,`` PH죘. `` P vLQ O 裆裴H 񆴫 O M 꽈. މ J FF򈶂 N MJ F ެJ ެ ޼. M QQI M ꣈F, FF . O O FJ I辋 bM F FF 辋 FJL ⴂ辋 .  𣼈, 嚪 MF މ O N F 񣘂C C C F , MJ A M򈶂 쾋, L C 옹 I A M񣰋. C Lv HJ vAv Fh죂 輈F F A."[5]

N C CJ ܴ YNM  P, qL, 裊 H H... ݆C O HM G𣆮 F މ F A. މ ݌M L  裋 AF e FFO  G gF FO ϡP ޶ 񆴫 ⴈ裆A.  F 숬 M, HKw FJ L N C N WF ܫ FO ܿF i.

A N C Lꈶ F HF Q, GCJ A M; N HA O F Q ݟ F; މ 舶 L   ܶ I; F MJ O 裇 KO E, N ޙ Lꈬ 裇 ; N ޼F Lꈬ 裇 󺮻 .

޶ 񣘂CF I ܈FC ܮ GK P. Lꈶ O FI HK. N F M, N F E ܶ QJ. F N , KO 𣘬 ݂.

މ E 𣘂J, H v O 裇 ܮ O AA 補. vM 裇, N 般 F , 𣘊 F F K, O F F򣰋. FpM, bMF ܙ ﴈ F N 舶 N FJ L  c F WF補 죘  ꣡ A O A. ޡ‹ ꣙ O ꣉ Q C ݂î ޼.

񣘂CF e ވF  F 󣴬J, SLL ܮ N A e M ݌ .

L NC vA MAJ `` 裇 G蛾 N``. ޼A ܬH N Fœ ޼A 崂 NO FJ ޼ O bQ  ܮEL O裇 MA裆. C O CJ F ޼ HK G, bQ E ެ 補.

L N CJ N, މ ``G蛾`` ܬF E𣘈 C P I辋 î O ޼A ܮE. ޚ ވJ 嚪 MF, 裴 śGO  򺮻? O GF . ޼H‹ މ ``śG``, N ꣉ L C FF K F N 般 EF vAvO ̘ 숬 ⊫𣶋 MAJ.

vLQF F F vA ߆  P v... 裈. N Q O, Q O FF 崂 HA GO ޼ M 숬 G FF 裊 ⴈ裆JA ܶ LF.

޶ N ݆CF L C MvK 񆴫 G . މ ݌ML ៪ H E,  𣂰 F 숬, P N 般 C C 񂰋 W𴈶A vLQv F 숬 ܮ 裇, N F F C C 膴 ޼.

, L CJ , N F E F L C  裇A . N F C F MF 輈 P H ޼. N L C C 裇A 숶 ܶ G gF F,  F ޼.

F L N C A ꌶ 裇H bF, A HC e   FO C M ܼC ꌶ K. ܶ H MK: ``HA O FKJ i, A M F󈶂 ꣈F F .`` O P, N C N G .

މ O, P b ܪKM O O O ꣘gF i, `` C ܬJ`` M ꣘gF ܙ L ܙ F𣆴 N śG A PM. gF b O A. FKJ i, FF  MF 裆, L MO ޼ C OA.

޶ vAJ GC FK ݰ. vA, K wM O F i 裆J, P P PHM. 弹 P w NF gF L񂰋 FF FF ެJ PH죘. O

O 般 膴 ܙ ﲂ 弫𣶋 Ii ޼F. ܶ J C 裇 O 般 F補J ܶ i ޼. ޼H‹ F, N O F F GK, ܈ O F CJ E 効 裴.

`` A M`` ``b `` P , HCL v H󣃫 J ܪK ݆C M FO KAF GM MK ޼. ܬ b ܪK裬  崂 ͛讈. O G ޡ‹ A 裇A. F މ G蛾 N 般 KP , C N 般 M F G캮 LF F. Q K O ݻ P vM ܃W .

9.  "讻

M K  gFJ śG M GH,  A 裇 M ܶJ ܫ, F ܪKM vJ ߘ P ? N F 裇 , P vLQ Q C, C "J śGO W N裆 M.

ݬ F 裇죴A F , vJ  bM C A , ܮJ N F C "讬 b O죰. ޼ މ"讂 b 裋 AF ͫ A N. N F G FO G񣂰 C 膮 숬 M, 裋 AF F, O CF vLQv M ꌶ, 꽈F ޮ F .

ދ 캬? M LM 𼉫M F ܪKM GM 옉 H, 1968 F 裃A Æ. A ެ퉶 F ܪKM C N般 M, K F ߴ PF.

裃AC F H P: ``C O 蘊 L .  ⴂ. F ܉ H ܄E A K ޼. މ F H ܘ -̫gF. ܶ C (ܙ F F ) M ꘂ P 죶``.

b A: ``F ܪK裾 ̘ c c ݻ . N gF P 𣘬, ޡ‹ ꣙ M ܮ ܋񣰋. śG ޼ O ܶ ܮ ܋ ``.

܃ F O P ޼F躮. F ܪKF MJ FJ ޼A ܙ F ⿄C C śG ޼A 弫 K ⿉, b M J , C śG M򈶂 ܊ O. ݻ 숶 ``N K`` ޼.

M, F ܪKM F N K ggF N죘 C .

ⴈ裆 ݘM, A F F̘ F F H ̘ P 補 ,  ERP ܬ 裇. F E GA L ܶ ߴ. ܬ K L N C śG K ꘂ ޼. ܈ O M ޼? ܮJ N O 膴 F O H. ꌻ ݻ F KO 𣘬 EK.

޶ b FJ 싪. vJF F ܪK NF C H. CLJ N L  HF. FJ J A ꣃ ܬ. ¬ 補 Hꆮ F󈶂 N ܬ. ݘM, 1969 裘 G蛄C - F 裘죫 N J 膴𣆴 裇. c  A. ܶ Q F ﲂ. H ܶ MM F 숶 N. LMM, F F N ⿄C 裇. ܶ .. v W F F CF W M. E, v IK 裂O F裴. LM N ߾ J 崂A.

vJꈶ F, F, N 般 FF FFL MM 숬 M. v GCJ FFJ , މ b 숬 I ݂A.

L N CJ , ނ補 K‹ ‹ v vLQF FC F M죘 H .

``vLQ 숪P , C E HAM N ⴈM. މ N  AM Cv  F ކ PA. vLQ ܬ승 ފ M, OJA.

`` v F J. AM 補 A ޶. vLQꈶ PJ G P補, C v 裴O C ``.

މ , A𣾂 ܊ F C M 裇. O CF KF ``vLQ N ܬ슬 `` O , NF e vLQ ꌶ裇 P P 裋 A ⴂ c,  F񣰋.

މ A F 崂 O P F ܪKM N F e vLQ H  ޼. ޶ N舶 FL F ܪK ެO FF M. KJꈶ F vLQ F 裴 HFGFF. ܶ ެ FJ ܫ N FJ I辋 C F QF, N F e FF ꣉H F.

M O C FO ܮE, 1960-O HFJ 1970-O F H 芫F N J, N舶 C ޙF F M.

裇 K , FF򈶂 F FE ꣂ ܬ. ޚ މ F𣂰 F ܪK N MFF  M KH b F ݟP.

10. KJF G킰

J-vJ L CJ F M F H J. O v K C 致H މ O H P FL FcA 𣘂.

QM FALN 1960O A ܬ K . ܉ F ވ F 輈F 補裆.

`` QM MP A,  ܬ F ܪKM M ܘ𴈶A. ܇ L gF EJ .  A C NJ ༊F裆,  , FF 숶 N 󣴫. P ܪK FF L ݻ W F ``.

ޚK K F 裊 (Teodoro Petkoff) . ݻ 񆴋 W M, QM F GFF H F 𴈶 H  ܽ辋 AJ. gF A A FFF FL, 裊 ފ  h މ HFF O P 𣆮J 肪裇, G Q L P ߴ죘. QM މ ݇ FF H F𣘂A.

܋ HFGF A. ༰J 񣇮MM ޙ G C GAA O E H ܋HLM F ފ K ܬFA. M-19 H ꣃ舶 ꌶ , F M F𴈶 񆴋 ܙ, O H CP O ݻ M F.

1980O v , G ꣇Qv죂 F ‹ ꣙K  ‹, F ܪK O A F G투 A HF.

ޚM J. ꣙K FMLN, FM URNG, ꣇Qv죂 A ܬ, N MJO 裬 J FO 𮂬O ެ. 裇죫 vAv O OF ܪK EO O F G𴈶, ܫ M ܬAP K މ ꣃO , FK hv FA މ 𮂬O v ޼ M. ޚ HK H C 裆裴 GF GF, ꌶ裇.

AJ, ފHF 20 ݇ HFF C ⿄C MFM ܙ ܶ 崂 㛬J  . I辋 𣘂 裇 N, ެ MJO FJ L M ޼ މ vJvO O, C O F𣰋.

ޡ A

A ޼A?  ݇ v ݆C FF H Lꈶ F J F M ?

 b v FFI Q M H ޼ P ޼. ܪK Fd 𮻋 v O𮻋 M PFI A𣾂 A Q ݇ 3 IL 5 IL ެJ ޼. މ M ꌺ M E A M F𣼆 P ꘂ ꉬ M􂰋 Q 샰 F M L ꉬM􂰋 W M ݰ. A F ꘂ 舶 IQ CL A G, ⇬ ꉬM M A G ܬ.

M Q ꣘F FJ ꘂJ AM Q 膮𴈶 M F. ꘂJ ވQ gF HA G􂰋 崂 ܮ ޼ FA. 1959 C , AM FO 83% M P A H  . F ꘂ, J, G, e C M 샰. M EJI F 蘾𣼆 F A F . ރ PH J.

i ```` H v ݬJ 補J, b b 裇 ܙ 冴 މ ܮ MM. M A , M ꈶ A E YF މ Q . ފ ݆C ܉G h FH裇A. މ YF CP CP A.

v M F v F A. F ܪK M O M Q  N죘. M ꣈ 킬 裆 A.

M PF A𣾂 N A. A C F, ܉G h FK 𴈶辋 A𣾂 ܴ贂 O C M辋 ܬ. 숶A F AM OJ, O ܬ MK: ``AM 싪 裇 Q, O h  î FI, މ FM ͫ A . ޶ 嚪 辋 辋 AA.

``IHS 죘v, v, Qh, K裘, ꣙, , eL 죫v, , (Mitsubishi Motors, Castrol, Unilever, Sherrit Gordon, Grupo Sol, Total, Melia Hotels, Domos, ING Bank, Rolex, DHL, Lloyds, Canon, Bayer) ެ A P , ެ AM . މGO C A 裇A. ܬ I H .

``h , 裊, K FA , QC î ݆O ޼, F, M, O ܂ O A O M A, A ެ F I M ܋ C.

AM MJ‹, AM ފ̫F L vLQv JM hv C GI śG މ h FAIP Q PH.

숶 G Q , F ܪKM FJ 裆, AM Q I辋 O. HC, ݘ O ܈ F G, c M G F . AM H vMI  ܬ M ܃WK򣰋.

v ꣃ EJ A CJ `` P`` 裊 F O OO h A A.  Q, Q O ݆C vM ݆C 苪Q L ꉬ𴈶F ߴ.

AM MF ޶ bM F M A. A ꣃF 裲 A O 裘 A F M. ꣃ N F, މ J C F ꣂO 꽈A. O 苪Q N w M cF K FA.

IJ C O  A. ޡ ܉G E JH M , ܪKM M A 򘉫, AM M Š  ޼A.

A산 裙, ݰ. v ݆C FIL ܄ FA. M A G 嶂 AM. MF, C , O 嶂. A  . M MK ݴA. J 𣡬J G􂰋 W A.

v ݆C bM ܬ HC ܪK ꣆A. MAI ܪKM 補 CP 崂 F FFF I, P裚 . ނ補 35 ݇ F . AJ J A A K  嚪‹ 裇.

AM ", ܮJ CQ O H O죰. A F HC b ܶ P. M FFL M Q ͮ .

C  M FO O 臮A. CJ ݇O OP ޚF O, ﴈF 꽬I 샰. 1980O 1990O 膴O 裟 ΊO AM ޼ OP, K L JA O J ܫ FO O . C 崂JL H.

ވ GO A ݆C A NO  K ̈́F A. v NO C FF A. މ C ܮ G ݻ AM 𣇬 G 숶A.

v A ܬH  PA. F ``FC`` , C 숶 񣰋. C ꣃF ܫ Qv CJ F . ꣡, J ܬ F MA, AM 嚪 A M Q F FEA. FL v󣾂 H î P L HC ޼A. ꣃF, F CJ ܬ MO ܃ AA.

FFF 弹 v ݆C O ༊F裆 A L 裆 ܉ , O L ‹ 輈M 裄𴈶 F FJA. ܶ, P F ܪKM.

12. 

񣘂C W A ``NO M N I E ޼`` 般 ꘈ. , F ݌M L N F G ݰ. ܶ N ܙ ꣘ F ⴂ躮. ܶ N 辋 ܬ Q 􈶂辋 , gF EF N F ̘ F M 񆴫 ޼躮.

1960O 1970O N 般 GK, Lꈶ F N FC 致HF P ܬ K  F, ܬ ދ 裈. 𶂰 𶂰 ެJ ݇ H މ O ༊J. 裋 AF ܬ肰 ⴈ 補 P FIJ GJ.

ܬ M M죊 P ܶ vJF J P P  GØ. މG𣆬 ``F ܪKM C 裬`` K. J G蛉? F  v  bM ެ 裬 ކ. N M裴.

v ꈶ O C C򽂰 WFJ A W F 𣼈F 補 F, ߾ M AJ MF?

G M O F OL L Q GH. މGM N ެO I辋 P F JMF躮. ފF , C F N 般 EFî K F . ޶ OF L G F Mꌻ F F, F ܪKM L C FI ɇ M AJ躮.

މ ͫ FL  A H 񣘂CvO M gF PA. E L CJ Q G C F K 致H ܙ. ޡ‹ ꣙, M裴  F N 舶 A P FJ 裋 AF ܬ M F, N F F C C 膴.

F ܪKM gF辋 śG, vA  ފ 裮O C 舶 î F 裇A. ޼ ˟ Lꈶ FL މ AA H ޼ ˟ G b ޼.


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