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a[&`pny sm`nw`v h` sm`jv`qy

p` @JvR[n

1995 vs@R pvWvn lq a@p`s u.@p. X`g@yN ;yyN hwr m asmW N @k@r bl p$ sm`j-a`Rk h` @vnW @HN b> a[&ynyK" (A study on the influence of Socio-economic and other factors on Pupils who failed in all four subjects at the GCE A/L examination held in 1995) yn m#@yN, mhrgm j`k a[&`pn a`ywn@Y, a[&`pk pR@Y;n @qp`Rw@MNv mN 1997 k`\yt pW @k`t a# pR@Y;n v`Rw`@vN / lAk`@V p`sL a[&`pny b> v#qgW @w`rr# sK an`vrny @V.

e "h#‰Nm" nM pl pC@Cqy a#@xN@N @m@S yŸ "/ lAk`@V a[&`pn@Y k`w arn vN@N, p`sL yn @Y n y m qr#vNt ek sm`n avS}` sMp`qny m . p`sL y`m vR[ny m s>h` q\k gnn`vK r` y`Wmk @kr# @Sv` @bq` h#@M v#dsthN h` bs`[n s>h` @y` v#dsthN yt@W @n`@L p`sL @p`W, @n`@L p`sL v` a`h`ry h` @n`@L @s_š& @Sv` a` q$ sMp`qny @kn. @mm bs`[n @vw q\k gnn`vK r` y`Wmk @mN pv apt @p yN@N k m`nv av\&w` vn @s_š&y, vW@M vtt`v h` Rn sAvR[ny s>h` aw&v\& vn @k`N@Q sMp`qny kl w yt@W v q, jnghn@Y s$m K@yk m s`m`kyN@G @p@v@W n`Wmk vR[ny s>h` em bs`[n @y` n# bv h` sMp`qny @kr# a[&`pny sm`j@Y s$m plkt m yhpW &127;l lb` @n` N bv ." (A study on four failiers - NIE 1997, 1 v)

ihw k`\@Y smhr kr# v&`lWvyN jw kr lN@N v q, / lAk`@V qhS a[&`pn ay S}`w @kr# 1945 oK@w~bR 01 q` t p#v s$m [np a`Nvk m a[&`pny b> k`w arn @Y, s$m lm@yt sm`n a[&`pn avS}` lb` m .

@k@S nW 1945 t vsr 52K y w#n, / lAk`@V a[&`pn pW skS m b> k a`ywny @ls s#l@kn j`k a[&`pn a`ywny m, k`w arn ikr mt @n` h# b#V p#vm, [nv`q@Y asmR}X`vy b> p`@p`Cc`rny. a@nK awt ey qhS a[&`pny a# sm`j bs`[n n`\ @k@rN pvWn` bv g#m.

@qK a[&`pn@Y asm`nw` pmnK @n` v, pR@Y;n v`Rw`@vN @pNv` @qn p smj` asm`nw`v@Y @g`r# bvt pW n ڱ jn kNd`yM m`nvW phkM sw v`s @n`m#kN, mNq@p~;n@yN, sm`j wyK @n`m#kN, aR}vW @VkyK @n`m#kN sh ߿y`@vN d` ‰. bSn`r pl`@W v#m a`q`ym lbNnN@G s`m`n& @@qk a`q`ym @d`lR 47 (r#yL 2350) K vn awr a m a`q`ym lbNnN@G s`m`n& @@qk a`q`ym @d`lR 1 K (r#yL 50-) b#V v`Rw`@vN @pNv` @Q. ey m sm`j asm`nw`v@Y g#„r @pNvn blg s`Ky. @mm asm`nw` a[&`pny @k@r blp`n ar# @vnW a[&`pnyN@G sK;n v`Rw` q pqnM kr gN @mm pR@Y;n v`Rw`v wv rtW @pNv` @q.

p`sL pQ[y h` sm`j asm`nw`v

@mm sK;n v`Rw`vt av yM p`slk vRgy, ey ӵt` a# @Q\@Y sm`j-a`Rk ;mw`vyNt sp sb>w`vK qr. 1992 - r$pAh sK;n v`Rw`vt av, / lAk`@V ;& jnghn@yN yyt 62.3K a[&`pny lbN@N IC vRg@Y h` II vRg@Y p`sLvl bvW yyt 20.3K pmnK 1AB vRg@Y p`sLvl a[&`pny lbn bvW j`k a[&`pn a`ywny (j`aa`) @pNv` @Q. v`Rw`vt av 1C vRg@Y p`sLvl a[&`pny s`@PK; vs@yN phl mTtmk pvn awr, @mm p`sLvl usS @pl ;y [`r` pvN@N kl` h` v`j aA\yN@gN pm. r$pAh sK;n@Y s`K @y~jnyt gNn` j`aa`ywny, 1C h` II vRg@Y p`sL [`n vs@yN pvW@N sm`j-a`Rk vs@yN pԫw @Q\vl bv whr# kr. pNmy asm`nw` h` p`sL vRgy awr sb>km oN @pNv` @qN@N @m@S yŸ

"1C h` II vRg@Y p`sLvl a[&`pn@Y wWvy @H @k`t @gn em p`sLvl Nt Qk a[&`pny s>h` sm`jmy vs@yN g#@nn ;y[`r` sw p`sLvlt a#m kr ktWwK vn awr t amwr v oN@G sm`j-a`Rk pm q @mm ihl p`sLvlt a#m s>h` v#t b‰. iw` p#h# v @p@nn p j`w&Nwr p`sL, Qgk p`sL, j`k p`sL sh vd` @š~p@X~gyN K ‰n p`sL, ymKkmK a# sm`j pNvl av\&w` pmnK sr`l." (j`aa` - sK;n v`Rw`v - 1997 - 2 v)

1978 bSn`r pl`@W, @k`lx ur, @k`lx qn, kwr sh @h~m`gm yn a[&`pn kl`pyN @w~r`@gn eS. r$pAh N krn lq sK;n@yN @h kr#vN 1A, 1B h` 1C vRg@Y p`sLvl ps`[n mTtM (achievement level) awr k# @p@nn @vnsK pvn bv whr# a# b#V q @mm v`Rw`v wv rtW p#h# kr. t amwrv n`gk p`sL h` gMbq p`sL awr s#ly @vnsK a# awr n`gk 1A p`sL h` gMbq 1C p`sL awr s#ly @vnsK n# bv q r$pAh sK;n@yN @h a#w - @mN blg @ls whr# vN@N ngrbq h` gMbq kMkr#-ԫw jny`@G qr#vN a[&`pny lbn 1C vRg@Y p`sLvl wWvy phwt m a#q qm` a# b#N em p`sL slkn kl gMbq h` ngrbq y@vN @vnsK qKnt @n` l#@bn bv . a@nK awt v# @š~p@X~gyK ‰n 1A vRg@Y p`sL slkn kl gMbq h` ngrbq awr pvn asm`nw` Ev`@Y ps`[n mTtM @k@r bl p` a#w. @mm kr# mN p#h#v m gmny kl h#K@K, eK eK p`sL vRg@Y ps`[n mTtM pNmy asm`nw` mw q ngrbq h` gMbq awr pvn asm`nw` mw q r>` pvn bv .

@p` @pr a`Nv mN y`vt q#@mN@N Iy` a[&`pn sASkrn yt@W p`sL v&hkrny nN y`Wmk vn nv v&`p^y. @mm v&`p^y @SW m p`sL awr asm`nw`v ivW @M v&`y`myK @n` v aŽr`j&v`N@G up@qS mw a[&`pn yqM a kr g#m s>h`W, @Qy a`@y~jkyNt av\& œkyN @M v^Wy p`\`l` a# m s>h`W @k@rn up`m`r#v. @M yt@W kMkr#-ԫw jny`@G qr#vN i@gm lbn p`sL \`l sAš&`vK vs` q#m mN asm`nw`v wvW vR[ny kr a#w. t pwv p`sL awr asm`nw`v a@h~ mt nM pNmy asm`nw` q ngrbq h` gMbq awr pvn asm`nw` q r# kl b#V sK;n v`Rw`@vN m el#ƒy h# gmny .

usS a[&`pny h` sm`j asm`nw` pR@Y;kyN wm pR@Y;n v`Rw`vt eKsW jnpq@Y S@k`NN jnpqy p`sL b>v @kr# s#@vL (1971) sK;ny q k#>v` g. ihl m sm`j-a`Rk wWv@Y (sa`w) plk qr#v h` slkn kl phl m sa`w plk qr#vt p|c`W usS p`\`y a[&`pny lb` g#@M avS}`v 2.5Ÿ1K q, |v q&`lyt a#lW@M avS}`v 4Ÿ1K q, up`ŽyK lb` g#@M avS}`v 6Ÿ1 K q p|c`W up`ŽyK lb` g#@M avS}`v 9Ÿ1K q b#V s#@vL sK;n@yN @h a# b#V pR@Y;k@y~ pvs. a[&`pn@Y ihl wlyNt yW m sm`j asm`nw`v vd`W g#„r# @ls blp`n b#V @mm sAš&` @Lšn mN mn`v p#h# @V.

aq n / lAk`@V sm`j asm`nw`v 1971 eKsW jnpq@Y sm`j asm`nw`vt vd` iw` g#„r# y. / lAk` mh b#Av N 1998 W krn lq p`@X~k, l& h` sm`j a`Rk sK;n v`Rw`@vN @pNv` @qN@N, / lAk`@V jnghn@yN PpW m yyt 40t j`k a`q`y@mN vn @k`ts yyt 13K q, m[&m a`q`ym lbn yyt 40t vn @k`ts yyt 34K q, @p`@h`sW m yyt 20t vn @k`ts yyt 53K q bv . @M s` pm`n g#„r# sm`j asm`nw`vyK l ԫw qr#vNt usS a[&`pny s>h` a# idkd wvW a# a#w.

[@N|vr a[&`pn y`vy h` sm`j asm`nw`v

@s`@r`N (1964) nm# a[&`pny`t av, a[&`pny y sm`jmy a`kLpy @vnS @M q, sm`j S}krny pvRwny @M q, nv @Q\p`lk rt` |cy @M q, sm`nw`v Rm`ny @M q m`h#  upkrny.

[@N|vr a[&`pnyN a[&`pn@Y ar g#n kw` @M @s`@r`N ut` qKvN@N v q [@N|vr a[&`pn y`vy l s#b#N m vN@N mK q yNn / lAk`@V h` j`w&Nwr a[&`pnyN@G phw k`\vN mn`v p#h# @VŸ

"a[&`pny y, œm @vl> @p`@L l g#m h` m a# q#nt y`Wmk @vN pvn sm`jmy h` ߿y`my S}r s>h` ;&yN @™rny krn, @gw krn h` krn yNykt sm`n ym." (nvR[n 1982 - j`aa` sK;n v`Rw`v, 11 v)

Ns a[&`pnyN @q@q@n vn @b`RV h` p#s@r`N wRk krN@N, pvn a[&`pn pQ[@Y k y`vy pvWn` sm`j@Y pN awr bl sb>w` Rm`ny m bv . yM a[&`pn pQ[ykt sMbN[ NnN lbn s`R}kWvyN h` as`R}kWvyN r>` pvW@N oN@G sm`jmy pm mw @n` v wmwm`@G Qgl SvX`vy h` l#m mw yn |v`sy a# m s>h` @plxmK a[&`pn y`vy N m a# krn bv @b`RV wv rtW y` n b#V sK;n v`Rw`v @pNv` @Q.

j`a, a`ywn v`Rw`vt av r$pAh, cNlw`, jyrWn, rvR[n yn / l`Ak a[&`pnyN @vN@vN v krn lq sK;nvN p oN p#h# v y` N@N, pvWn` sm`j asm`nw`v pvWv`@gn y`m s>h` p`sL pQ[y blg m m`[&y a# bv .

@b~LS sh NS @pNv` @qN@N a[&`pn y`vy l k vs@yN @k@rN@N [npyNt v#qgW vn, @p_r#;yN sh a`kLp sw h` [np yt ytW vn kMkr# blk`yK sMp`qny m bv . s#< ;y m`l`vK l @mm kr#n s`K;`W kr g#m s>h` a[&`pn pQ[y blg @ls uqV k`rk vN@N y oN k`\ krn b#V q v`Rw`@V wv rtW s>hN @V.

[@N|vr p`sL a[&`pny b> iw` p#h# yK a# kr g#m s>h` @lN@G phw p#h# M mhW@S upk`rk @V.

"p# vRg@Y p`s@L k`w arn @Y sRv p`R|y a[&`pny l# N m y. @p`@V q&`vN ug#Nm y. e@hW mhW sm`jy m pqnM @Y sh pvWv`@gn yn lQ@Q jnw`v pNvlt @bm, r`kNnN h` ԫwyN vs@yN @bm mw @hN a[&`pn@Y em k`w arn sMRn@yN v&`j @qyK bv a q. p# p`sLvlt sMRn@yN m pN v ny k` v# @hN, Ev` SvX`k vs@yN m a[&`pny N@N [@N|vr pN@Y qr#vNt pmn. [np pN@Y v`y s s$m vcnyK m v^w krn l. @mm p`sLvN kMkr#vN@G h` @g`N@G b`l prMpr`vlt a[&`pnyt vd` [@N|vr pN@Y yhpwt aq`l srx vK . oN krn lQ@Q [@N|vr pN@Y s`myt h` @Vkyt b`[` @n` kr l`X ip@Y h#y`v a#Ww` q, [np pNyt @y~jnvW q @SvkyN vn a`k`ryt y." (@lN -jnw` a[&`pny g#n, - 129 v)

QŽy h` sm`j asm`nw`vy

wm @qm`yN@G sm`jmy wWvy qr#vN@G QŽy @k@r blp`n aNqm b>v sK;n v`Rw`@vN p#h# @k@R. "QŽy, qR\nv`qy h` a[&`pny" nN . smN N rw N}@yN @gn h#r q#K@vn kr# av "QŽy" y ugWkmt v#mnW @qy. 1973 @jNKS@G sK;nyt av j`nmy h` p`sk asm`nw` jnghn@Y QŽmy clny @k@r blp`n b#V @h @B. @mm cln@yN yyt 45K j`nmy vn awr yyt 55K p`sk b#V @jNKS gmny kr.

p`sL l vn @Qt vd` @vs l vn q$ v# blp$mK qr#vN @k@r a# krn b#N "sm`n a[&`pn avS}` "y qr#vNt lb` Nn q @vSvl a`Rk h` sASk^k vtt`v asm`n vn w`K rt iN a# kl h#K@K aLp blp$mK b#V q sK;k@y~ @pNv` @q. @k@S nW pvWn` sm`j@Y qr#vN@G QŽy @k@r blp`n [`n s`[ky wm @qm`yN@G ߿y`my wWvy (occupation) b#V v`Rw`@V s>hN @V. v@vN q#K@vN@N ߿y`my wWvy av @qm`yN@G h` qr#vN@G QŽy clny vn a`k`ry . sMmw pK;nyK mN mn lq `nn slw` mw @qn lq l av @m vRkrny @k`t a#w.

asmW N@G sm`j-a`Rk pm

1995 a@p`s u@p X`gyt p`sL ay#Mkr#vN 105,966K q Qgk ay#Mkr#vN 30,758K q, @p t a#w. ay#Mkr#vN@G sAš&`v 136,724. eN 42,966K ;yyN @qkN @h~ It v# sAš&`vN asmW a# awr ;yyN hw@rN m asmW sAš&`v 12,506K @V. X`g@yN asmR} vN@G sAš&`v ay#Mkr#vN@G sAš&`@V \wyK @ls k`\ kl @h`W yyt 31.42.

sK;n kNd`ym wm sK;ny s>h` @w~r` @gn a# bSn`r pl`@W pmnK ;yyN hwr m asmW N sAš&`v 4,645. N 2,666K p`sL ay#Mkr#vN y.

sK;n v`Rw`@V V pC@Cqy nM @k`t a#W@W "@s`y`gW q$ sh R@Q\" y@v. e 5.3.1 @Cq@Y "asmW N@G sm`j a`Rk @k`N@Q" nM up m`w^k`v yt@W @m@S s>hN @V.

"sK;n@Y a`vrny krn lq asmW N sAš&`@vN hw@rN nK m p#vw eN@N phl sm`j pNN@g. @mm N@G yvr#N @y N@N sd vn pNyt - q$@W v#d s>h` n kMkr#vN@G pNyt - vd` phW pNvl ߿y`vN y."

"oN p#@nN@N m`k a`q`ym r#. 800t vd` a pLv. iN @b`@h`myK r`j& mTt@M a@Rk a`[`ryK s>h` kM lW jnsl`N @h~ sm^QŽl`N y."

"@mm jn kNd`yMvlt ayW plk s`m`n& s`m`kyN sAš&`v 5.46K vn awr ihl sm`j pNvl @mm agy 4.60"

"asmWvN@gN yyt 12K p#@nN@N @qm`yN@gN eK ay pmnK n pLv. oN@G mv @h~ y`@gN @k@n y @g`S a#w."

"@qm`yN@gN yyt 50kt v# sAš&`vK a[&`pny lb` a#W@W Qk a[&`pn mTtm @wK pm. wm qr#vNt mg @pNm s>h` q#mK h` a`Wm |v`syK oNt @N n#w. @k@S nW o wm qr#vN b> ihl a@PK;` sh bl`@p`@r`W wb` yh." (j`aa` - sK;n v`Rw`v 1997, 144 v)

;&yN@G @vSvl pm b> krn lq sK;nvN el#ƒy h# gmn @ls sK;kyN av[`rn@yN pvsN@N em pM qr#vN@G a[&`pn y`vy smg g#@tn bvW, oNt a[&n kt s>h` Qgk S}`nyK @n`m# bvW, em @vS vWm s>h` iw` awkr wWv@Y pvn bvW y. t amwrv @mm ڱ N @p~;n@Y sh @s_š&@Y amvW bv s` blg @ls d` ‰n bv q v`Rw`@V s>hN @V. nvwm "@sF" v`Rw`vN av / lAk`@V qr#vN@gN yyt 50K mNq@p~;n@yN @p@ln b#V @h @V.


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