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jRmy y Ek`bQ[ @mN qs vsrkt pŸ @|; pyK

@v@Rn` S
2000 a@g~S 9

jRmy y Ek`bQ[ @M sm`j h` @Q\p`ln blp$m b> @|; pyK sks` g#m, em @eh`k QŽ@yN anr#v qs vsrK gw a# @M avS}`@V, y @p y a#w. el@xn s gnn`v l, @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady em a`@yN Kwv gnn`vK yw k`l`NwryN pl kr a#w. @mm }m y y Ek`bQ[ @M sm`j p`k X`g kr.

qs vsrkt ihw , y Ek`bQ[ m sh @p` my EkkyK h‹Nv` m n#@gnr jRm@Y (jRm` j`wN jnrjy (a`R)) avs`ny sl kl kL, PmW an`gwyK b> amhW bl`@p`@r`W q#L@vN p#vn. aq vd` w#NpWv bln t @p yN@N e r#Q[y a# bv .

n#@gnr h` btr jRmy yn @q@k`t@S m jnghn@yN @b`@h`myk@G sm`j wWvyN n`tk`k`r @ls a#q v# @B. epmnK @n` v, p#r a`R kl`p btr jRm` @fdrL `Nw lt ukh` g a#w# pl @kr# an`v#vlt pw @ls, sm`j v`Nwgwm ihl @g`S a#w. s#Ks-a#N@h~LT, y` sh @mK@lNbRG -@v`R@p`mRS yn n#@gnr jRm` @fdrL `Nw @fdrL jnrj@Y mezzogiorno -- qw`v, mhjn ߿y`v h` sASk^k š`qny blpvWvn kl`pyK -- bvt pWv @B. vWmN wWvy vd`m n`tk`k`r @ls ġ„ vN@N, n#@gnr t btrt, yLltmW vd` wr#n jny`, sAmn@Y nv ihl n#m l y.

k` gL ar# a`kry vs` q#mt e@rv e p#v @r~[y @H@vN vsr pykt ihw L @ls QŽyt pW ngryK vn @c`f@r`D, n#@gnr jRm@Y d` ngrvl @M nvl qKnt l#@bn p` X`vy b> kt yK sMp`qny kr. a`kr kMkr#vN@G upv`sy avsN @M h` 1993 ag X`g@Y oN@G pwl vs`q#@M ptN @M qKv` k`ly l, @mm ngryt e v#yN@gN 500 h` 600 awr m`nyK -- jnghn@yN yyt 20t v# m`nyK -- a a#w.

k` kMkr#vNt @p`@r`N Rn-k`n ߿y` 700K 1000W awr m`n@yN sw& vs@yN m l# a#W@W yyt 10K pm. a`kr kMkr#vN 700N 106K pwL v#@mN p @m@hMvl wvmW @Sv@Y @y`qv` @B. em kt hm`r oN ߿y` rwyN bvt pW kl, q\k gnn`vK S@S @p`lv yt v#d m @n`wk`, oNt l#@b a#W@W oNt avs`n@Y y œ`m v#@pN yyt 40kt sm`n vn aNwR l& sh`y mn`vK pm.

m$wm ߿y` sAš&` @Lšn, n#@gnr h` btr jRm@Y smhr kl`p awr wv wvW Lvn prwry av[`rny kr. m`s@Y btr ߿y`v yyt 8.2 kr` l<` awr, r@T n#@gnr @k`t@S ߿y` rw ap`wy e@mN @qnykt vd` ihl agyK vn yyt 17.8 y.

s#Ks-a#N@h~LT `Nw@Y v#d kl h# jny`@gN yyt 20kt a`sNn m`nyK ߿y`@vN @p@ln (qw`vt a#q v# sRy` nm# iw` p@W wWvy h` sNsNqny kl h# mTtm) nW, b#@Vy`@V h` b#DN-TMbRG ߿y`v yyt 5K pm. py m`s @qk l, apnyn ihl y`m @H@k`t@gn btr ߿y`v phl b#s a#w. n#@gnr em agy @pr p#v ihl mTt@M m @n`@vnSv pv.

@k@S @vwW, @mm sAš&`vNt wv gW kl vWmN wWvy b> smSw sw&y @hqrV kl @n` h# y. Ev` n#@gnr jRm@Y q\ lK; sAš&`w jny`@G irn@M L pm`v v`Rw` @n`kr. bRN-#DNbRG `Nw@Y sm`j q&` pR@Y;n m[&S}`ny (eSeFi@sD) N py Mh`n@Y k`\yt pW krn lq 1999 sm`j v`Rw`v, n#@gnr jRm@Y @k`N@Q vd` SRn @ls @pNM krN, vd` Swr`Wmk qWw h` sAš&` sMp`qny kr.

enN gW kl apt qKnt l#@bN@N, nv @fdrL `Nwvl v#d krn jny`@G sAš&`v 1989 yn 9.7 t 1998 yn 6.1 qKv` v# a# bv. ߿y` Kw kMkr#vN@G sAš&`v, @vN @k`t gW t, yn 9.5 t 5.5 qKv` phw b#s a#w -- yn hwrk v#mK! wvW kMkr#vN 350,000kt a#Ww vs@yN m ߿y` l# a# nW E oN r @gv` y` btr @bn ߿y`vN y.

n#@gnr jRm`vN@gN yyt 53K (ar# 18 h` 59 awr sh v#d kl h#) 1998 vn t ek vw`vK @h~ It v# vw`vN sAš&`vK ߿y` rwv t a# bv eSeFi@sD mN kl sK;nyK @pNv` . 1998 em ߿y` rwyN@gN \`l ap`wykt (yyt 12.6) l#@N w ߿y` @k`N`W pm -- @b`@h~ avS}`vN , r`j& aдh@yN y`Wmk vn ߿y` Rm`n v&`p^ l y. em k`l@Y m, em a`k`r@Y v&`p^ l mGn @Y btr kMkr#vN@gN yyt 7.4K pm.

y Ek`bQ[ @mN pv, a`R v&`p`r sh lK; sAš&`w k`Rk ߿y` a@h~ @M a mhW sm`j blp$m avm m s, evN v#d@vlvL L @ls @y`q` g#. e@mN m, Iy` ߿y` gNvn EjN -- r`j& ߿y` k`Ry`l h` v^Wy svl s^ amy swv w# a`ywn -- nv ߿y` Rm`ny krn @wK @q`Tt v# kMkr#vN s>h` w`vk`k a`rK;k q#lK s#pm s y @pNvn l. @k@S @vwW, nv ߿y`vN kr` m`r# vnv` @vvt, ߿y`vt lKvN@gN @b`@h`myK avs`n@Y nwr @Y nv ߿y` Rm`n v&`p^ h` @s ߿y` K v&`p^ l y. sm`j v`Rw`v @m@S s>hN krŸ "@b`@h~ avS}`vN , @vns gW@W, Rn-k`n ߿y`vNt m`r#m @vvt, ek @k-k`n ߿y`vk t Il< ekt @k@rn m`r#mk Svr$py."

߿y` Rm`n v&`p^vlt amwrv, ߿y`vt lKvN av@\~;ny krg#m s v^Wy v#dsthN q @y`q` g#@N. ar# 25-59 vyS k`Ndy l, 1998 @mN y v#dsthNvlt shX` awr oN@gN yyt 27K eK vw`vK q yyt 30K @qvw`vK @h~ vw`vN gnn`vK q e@ls shX` y.

@m q ap qN@N ekm NryŸ S ek v^Wy v#dsthnN Il< ekt y. "œm @vl> @p`lt sMbNŽw @s @Q\p`ln yvryN @mN m, n#@gnr jRm@Y jnghny wv r a[&`pn h` y p`m`l` qN@N, v#d @l~ky lt y a#m s>h` s#b$ avS}`vK spyn v&`p^ @ls @n`v E @vvt Sr ߿y`v awrm< ‰n k`l pC@Cq vs@y." (sm`j v`Rw`v 1999)

m$w vsrvl , [`n kRm`Nw L pm`@vN n`\ kr q#m mN p#r a`R sMq`k k`Rk kl`pyk t @Sv` kRm`Nw @qst [`n vs@yN @y` kl`pyK bvt pvRwny @k @B. 1989 kMkr#vN@gN yyt 45K p`qn v^WN Kwv awr, q#N em aA\@Y m`ny yyt 33.3K (oN@gN @nN ekK k^kRm`Nwy l y) pmnK vn awr yyt 63.2K @Sv` aA\@Y mGnv . e p`kyK @ls, m$w m`svl p#v apnyn uWp`wy -- eKsW jnpq @d`lr@Y ihl vm`r# ap`w@Y &127;lyK @ls a# -- @mm kl`py mw ‹ blp$mK a# @k`t n#w.

E awrr, @g`dn# kRm`Nwy h#mt lK@vN, s osvN d` v&vs`yN gnn`vK m kd` v#@tN @B. sm`j v`Rw`v @m@S aqhS qKvŸ "a@wN ӵvn lq v&vs`yN -- yLltmW vd`, h` iw` v&`p`r (K;k a`h`r s#L, p`C krn lq @m~tR r} a@l , @y~ \`l` yn`y) -- t kMkr#vN s>h`, @k-k`n vW, nv v@n~p`ykt pqnmK sMp`qny kr. e@hW @mm v&vs`yN@G p#v#W@M h#y`vN a\y w y."

qhS @vl> @p`l h‹Nv` m b> a`rMXk jy uQq`m@yN (@b`@h~ kMkr#vN Svy v&`p`r a`rMX m s>h` emN @m@hy) pv, q#N bl pvWvn m@n~gy @h`‰N m sm kl h#K@K "@w~Nv`vt ". py vsr l , @v@lNqN@G h` v&`p`r yN@G p#W@wN @kr# }m @r~[w` q#Km y. 1999 m`R@V , eRT ngr@Y , v&`p`k@y~, "jRmy g @vK Nn @n`v" yn stN p`y yt@W @r~[w` q#Kh. y kw`vl h` sMš s`kCc`vl , shX`vN v`Rw` k@L, wmNt qL @gv l#b n# \`l a#nM @H@k`t@gn wmN vd` vd` bA@k`@l`WX`vyt n @qn bv.

@m`k` S@c`nm`N b> QŽy wWvy sMbN[@yN qR\n`Wmk y. a#@G s#y`t ayWv w`pn a`ywnyt v#d X`r mh` pm`n v&vs`yK wm up-\`š`vN@gN ekK bA@k`@l`WX`vyt a#q q# awr emN S@c`nm`Nl` mw m`K lK; gnnkt sm`n ny brK p#t. q$@S k‹ rv`@gn @m`k` v`Rw` k@L, a#@G s#y` q#N ߿y` rwv ‹ a`q`ymN @w`rv n bv. ek phN d` a`ywnvl ߿y` 1000K n`\ kl \`l v&vs`y q#N @vnW nmK yt@W y`Wmk vn awr, e l& v`Rw`vNt av, b l`X @ls m`K yn hyK pmn upy`g#mt smWv a#w.

kN \`l a`ywn @ls p#v sm`gM mN awh#r q# v&`p`r l @q`Tt q#M -- @mm a`yynvlt m[&m h` pm`n v&vs`yN bvt pvRwny mt id slsN -- ašNdv @V. kMkr#vN 100kt vd` @Sv@Y @y`qvn v&`p`rvl ap`wy 1994 t 1998 pmnK vn t yyt 47 t yyt 38.5 qKv` phw v# a# bv sm`j v`Rw`v @pNv` @q. @my kMkr#vN@G a`q`y@M q#v#Nw v#mkt @B. l ap`wyNt phN pvn v#P Lv p#r# @qyK bvt pW@vN a#w. 199394 w s^@V 1998 a`rMXy qKv`, ek< v#P ap`wyNt phl a`q`yM lbn n#@gnr jRm` k`Rk kMkr#vN@G ap`wy yyt 12 t yyt 28 qKv` ihl n#.

1997-98 kl wvW l pK;nykt av, a gn@N QglyN pS @q@n @Sv@Y @y`qvn y n#@gnr jRm` v&`p`k a`ywnvN yyt 46k v#d k (kMkr#vN@G @y~jny sw) @n`m# awr, Ev` j`kv g# v#P ap`wvlt ytW @n` . btr @mm agy yyt 29.5K y. n#@gnr @SvkyN 20 qKv` vn v&`p`k a`ywnvN h adkt vd` m`nyk @mm @k`N@Q p#v. btr ey yyt 32.8K y.

nWwL p`@w~k mn` @h~ v` v#P @n`m#v n 20K pmnK vn v`Rk v` lb`@qn ߿y` s>h` p#yk v#P @ls m`K 15K h` ItW a@vN @gm ew#N ptN sMmwy bvt pWv a#w. s`m`n& agy gW kl, btr sNsNqn`Wmkv n#@gnr v#d sy p#y @qkN R{ y. 1999 n#@gnr Mb s>h` s`m`n& Q[ m`k a`q`ym m`K 3,960K y -- btr a`q`ymt (m`K 5,250) vd` yyt 25N phl agy.

1990 t 1999 vn t qw` mTtM N nykt vd` v# m`nyN ihl y`m |myt kr#nK @n` @V. vRwm`n@Y, n#@gnr jRm@Y n jny`@gN s$m qh@yN pAvK m vWvN@N q mTt@M y. (e qw` @Rš`v s#l@kN@N, n#@gnr `Nwvl s`m`n& a`q`y@mN yyt 50K @ls y). epmnK @n` v n#@gnr sm`j l`X lbn jn sAš&`v -- btr em sAš&`vt vd` a vW -- @yN v#@dN pv. 1999 a@g~S@V em sAš&`v It @pr vsrt sNsNqn`Wmkv yyt 7.5N n#g . btr ey yyt 1.6N v# .

n#@gnr jRm` v`N@gN smh@rK iw` [nvW bvt pWv a# awr, o q#N r@T q\ lK;pyN awr . @k@S @vwW, vsrkt ynykt vd` upyn 260 @qn` jnghn@yN a\N m wTv. eyt sNsNqn`Wmkv, btr q\ lK;pyN 25,000kt a`sNn sAš&`vK .

sm`j š`qny sm`j@Y @s aAg l q k`\yt pWv a#w. 1994 vn t 1989 mTt@mN yyt 50 qKv` a upW ap`ky, q#N yyt 50t mqK v# mTtmk a @h~ v# vs@yN ywv pv. n#@gnr w a@PK;`v phl bN pv. r#;yN s>h` ey ar# 72K (btr ar# 74) vn awr SN s>h` ey ar# 79. (btr ar# 80). E awrr, v`s sARn l ynyK qKv` v`s sAš&`vK Sv pv. n#@gnr jRm@Y v`sy mt k#m N sAš&`v eNn eNn m a @V. 1999 vn t jnghny yn 1.144N phl b#s .

qs vsrk w @[n`Wmk vN@N n#@gnr jRm@Y jny` s>h` pmnK @n` @V. y Ek`bQ[ m, btr q pLlM b#mK a`rMX kr a# awr, ey @p`@h`sN h` PpN awr sq` g#„r# vn ag`[ykt @B. qw`v b> pR@Y;ky vn cD hsRt av, s`m`n& a`q`y@mN yyt 60kt vd` a a`q`ymN vWvn btr jny`@G ap`wy, 1990 q\k@Y a`rMX@Y t em q\ky m#q vn t yNwM yyt 19 t yyt 22t iw` a`sNn m`nyK qKv` v# (n#@gnr ey yyt 11t a`sNn mTtmk t yyt 14 qKv` v#.) ek qr#v sw pL s>h`. eN aqhS @kr#@N 1997 ql vs@yN m`K 2,500k m`k a`q`ym. @mm sm`j ph` y`q`my l , m[&m pN@Y smSw S}ryK phlt h#r# sRyK lt a#q g#@nN pv.

m[&m pr`s@Y a`q`yM lbn jny`@gN h adkt a`sNn m`nyk sm`j wWvy 1991 t @M qKv` ph`yt lKv a# bv adBV (jRm` a`Rk pR@Y;n a`ywny) N krn lq a[&ynyK @s`y` g l#b a#w. qw` pR@Y;ky vn i@RN @bkR@G @s`y`g#Mvlt av, jRm@Y MbvN ihl yyt qhy, "@fdrL b#Av N v`Rw` kr l#b a# p m`K yn 12K vn j`@Y Qgk [n@yN h adK m p`@H" K ‰n awr, phl aR[yt kM v h#K@K yNwM yyt 4k m`nykt pm.

cD hsR "@nN @q@K sm`jy" (jnghn@yN @nN @qkK [nvW mTt@M n jRm` sm`jy b> sMq`k q^y) b> wv rtW kw` @n` krn awr, E @vvt "p@hN hw@R sm`jy" ([nvW @n` vn p@hN hwrN q#N j`y smNw y yNn av@b~[ kr g#m) g#n kw` kr.

jRmy vn`, jnghn@yN amhW bwry PpWk@mN PpWkmt a#q v#@tn awr d` wryK m`k`r @ls [nvW bvt pWvn pN sm`jyK y yNn y Ek`bQ[@mN qs vsrkt pv, kvr q`ktW vd` p#h# a#w. a`R > v#m jRm@Y p|c`W-q "sm`j @vl> @p`l a`Rk@Y" avs`ny q sl kr @B.

g`d sm`j g#M -- @Mv`t ek sMq`k pK;ykt vW s‹M n#w -- npw` w@Y mtt yN sCc @vN pv. vd` [nvW @fdrL `Nw sh a`Rkv pԫw kl`p awr L vn ag`[y q#v#Nw sm`j M s>h` y sks. vd` @s_X`g&mW `Nwvl (b#@Vy` v#) @Q\p`lnyN, n#@gnrt @q lbn l&my sh`y nwr krn @ls q^dwrv iLlN n#@gnr jRm@Y jny`t e@rv @@vry avn awr, n#@gnr sm`j w mN sm`j k`lkNX`vy wm v`yt hrv` g#mt uWs`h qrn vdvd` um qKn`Ak vnw`vN s>h` j v#@R.

 


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