World Socialist Web Site

 

Mehring Books




 

 

WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : @r~py

f#STv`qyt h` St#Nv`qyt e@r argl@Y k^whSw@yK
n#w`N SNbRg(R) bRn@Y o@G a@v upNny smr

2000 a@g~S 09
vn` S

16 q` n#w`N SNbRg(R) bRn@Y o@G a@v upN ny s#mr#@Vy. o @s~yT sAgmy l St#N@G r k>r#vN glv` gWw` q, wm` n N w`sjnk aWq#MvN @n`s#, oN@G k sm`jv` mwyNm y` q, jRm@Y @k`ST pK;@Y t s`m`kyN p @qn` awN @k@n.

o@G wy mhW vn \wvR;@Y w @gn env` pmnK @n`v, kMkr# v&`p`ry gw g@Y n N @Kqy aWq#M iw` spv Mbny kr.

bRn@Y s`Mq`k @qV plk b`ly` @ls upN n#w`N v#@N ڱkmW sm. @l~ky b> o@G pl h#m Rvcny kr @q l#@Y Q[y, sNn, sh k`l`m@yN p#y` bRN kMkr#vN@G Plvv` arglv. pl @l~k Q[y a#r@xn t n#w#N V y# qr#@v. r#y` Plvy vn t o@G vys ar# hw. lm` @y mwkyN msQ n#w`N SNbRgR y` @Y Ÿ "r#y` Plvy mN bRny klxv l#v`. s$m @qn`m kw` krN @Y @lN sh @`TS g#n. a`p h# b#v@h`W, mt yNn vN yw vs@yNm r#y`@V M bRn@Y h` smSw jRm@Y wy mw q#v#Nw blp$mK a# kl`."

SNbRG vst iw` a`sNn @Q\vl smhr \`l @plp`, sh stN p#n n#n. n#w`N@G @sLlM b @Y @yN al`gW S p@w`rM @k` vn awr Ev` Sp`tkSND (Plvv` "Sp`tkS gy") h` @k~PS XtyN (g` p`R@MN sA[`n) awr a# sNnQ[ g#Mvl X`w` kl Ev` y. pv @mm Sp`tkSND sA[`ny, @r~s` lKsMbRG sh k`L B@nKT N n`ykWvy @qn lq jRm` @k`ST pK;@Y aw&v\&m aAgyK y.) wrm, p`s#L k`l@yN p @Vl`@V n#w`N mhjn uQ@{~;nyNt eK y, svS k`l@Y vN kTp#Nn o, iNj`lyN @mN a# @Y y# ot h# uM v`q @kr#n` @Q\p`ln kMkr#vN@G SMvlt shX` y.

o@G v#mL s@h~qry` , pv n` v[ k>rk mr` q# a#@d`LF@G blp$m mw n#w`N iKmNm @k`ST v&`p`ryt eK y. ar# 14 @k`ST wr#n @fd@R;n@Y s`m`kWvy lq o "usS p`\`y @k`ST ;&yN@G kNd`ym" sh o n`yk y`kl`pyK i kl` "sm`jv` p`s#L ;& @fd@R;ny" @g`dn#@M ktvl rw y.

l`b`l @Y tm jRmN kMkr# v&`p`r@Y g#t h‹n`@gn n#w`N jRmy l r#y` Plvy nRkrny @M yWn@Y aWq#M l#@Vy. a`p h# bln t 1923 vsr o q#kgN@N @k`ST h` sm`j j`wNv` kMkr#vN awr @ bl`@p`@r`W sh a`wN a# kl vsrK @l. em vsr r`m v#d vRjn p#v. "avk`\y @N m#y h# h#@mN- @Q\p`lkv q#vW h#m @qn`m ey iKmN @vw# w` y`" y# o pvs. "a y @qn`m, bRn@Y kMkr#vN sh wr#nyN, Rv a@PK;`vN@G q`h@yN @p@lN bl` y` jRmN oK@w~bR Plvy p#@nn r#. E k`l@Y mt ey iw` p#h#v q#n`. v&`p`r@Y nw aLl` g#mt @n` h# vn wrmt m , jRmN @k`ST pK;@Y (@KԬ) v#M mN a# kl bl`@p`@r`W kdm yLlt m vd` bl y.

"eKvrm yLl w#n n#v awr mt ey p#h# mt @n` h# n`. s#@nN @plxm n#v klm p# y`. @KԬy l sA[`ny kr @n` kMkr#vN @|;@yN m klr#n`. n gnn`vK yn r# d`k` h'w`vK p#vn`."

r#y`@V @k`ST pK;y l St#N@G kNd`ym sh @y`N @`TS N n`ykWvy N v`m p`R|vy awr p#n n#n` argly, 1923N p @KԬy lW g#M a#l y. @mm @Q\p`ln M ukh` g#mt o wvmW l`b`l v# y.

1926 n#w`N a# o@G \`š`vm @k`ST wr#n @fd@R;n@yN (@K@J)@yN elv` q#. ey s`[`rykrny krn lQ@Q \`š`v k`L @k~@G blp$m yt@W p#v bv y. k`RL @k~ @KԬ@Y š r#Q[ p`Kk@yK awr o pK;@Y @vw @Vcny k@L y.

n#w`N SNbG(R)@G v#d kt eSeSyt m` y. o sh o@G rN s`kCc` krn lQ@Q @Q\p`lny pmnK @n` @V, eK k`STnR, a`RnLD @vG sh a@nW ev# @LškyN smN s`kCc` sA[`ny k@L y. m@n~q&`v sh AkWvy b> v`q klh. 1929 usS a[&`pny s>h` X`g smW mW smN n#w`N, plv |vq&`l @@vq& p`\`l`@V y`pA @Y wmN@G ywm ;y m@n~q&`v h#q$@M a`@y, e@hW pv @Q\p`ln aR}\`Syt m`r# y. o k^k`Rk q&`v b> @|; q#m l#@Y ekl @m`SkV j`w&Nwr k^kRm a`ywn@Y @y~w@y jny q&` k`L T@f`@gL yt@W .

@pr @k`ST pK; wr#n @fd@R;n@Y (@k`w@f) plv` h#m @n`wk` m 1928 n#w`N @KԬ@Y s`m`k@yK y. St#N sh o@G ag`kyN N v# krn lq "sm`j f#STv` n&`y" sMbNŽwv @Kԫy l blg mw@Hq a`rMX vsr @ls 1928 sl @V. @mm n&`yt av sm`j j`wNv`qy sh St#Nv`qy awr @vnsK n#w. @mm y ns` g#@M @v@W blp$m @Y sm`j j`wNv`N@gN sh @k`ST kMkr#vN@gN v#@dn f#STv`qyt e@rv m vn On$m @p` arglyK vlk`m .

n#w`N @mm a`S}`ny ek@hl` K@p k@L y. o pW krn @ls "@mm av`m a`S}`ny @Q\p`ln G[Nt y. 1918 W 1923 W Plvv` aWq#M hrh` p#n a bwry eSԬy f#STv`N smg sm`n kr q#Km K@p kl`. mm, @m`n hN vW, m @tk, vl uQ@{~;n krQ "sm`j f#STv`qy " yn @ym X`w` k@L n#h#." n#w`N SNb(R)Gt plvrt @y`N @`TS@G y awg#@N @mm sm@Y . @`TS kMkr#vN@G eKsW @prnK s>h` k#>M kr @Y y. E awrm anr# a<v` @Y St#N@G @Q\p`lny kMkr# pNy awr @bmK a# kr a# bvtW n`N@G vMvlt kMkr# pNy @g`r# kr a# bvtW y.

eN k klkt p n#w`N SNb(R)G@G wy n`tk`kr@yN @vnS y. k`L T@f`@gL@G R@Q\y yt@W wm a[&yn p`m`l`v avsN mtW }m, 1932 @m`SkV k^kRm a`ywnyt o pWmK l#@V y. o smg o@G @pMvy @mN m @KԬ@Y y` s`m`k`vk IW q y` y. @m`SkV ont mt @N vsr @qkK pm, e@hW 1933 TlR blyt p#mW smN wr#n vlt n#vw jRmyt y` @n` h# y. E oN @KԬ@Y s`m`kyN vg q#n s`m pmnK @n` v oN @qVvN q s` y.

kMkr# v&`p`r@Y pr`jyW jRm@Y f#STv`q@Y jyhnyW N n#w`N sh IW kr q#. E smg m oN av@b~[ kr gW @qy @Y St#N@G wNy yt@W @s~yT sAgmyt, 1920 gnNvl oN @q@qn` m @Q\p`lnyt a`kR\ny kr gWw` Plvv` Xv`qy smg @m`n m @h~ @p` @qyK vW n#w yNn . k^k`Rk a`ywn@Y E p#r sg@y~ blhWk` s`̵kkrn y`vy yt@W `y SKkvl ykr# h` Cc M b>v n#w`Nt q#Nh.

SS Plvv`@y @mN m @lN@G iw` sp sg@y TS Pl#tN v# @b`L@;Kvr# ot n g#; Pl#tN sh a@nW p#r pK; s`m`kyN @Vg@yN @qkl` vn a`k`ry o aW@V y. @M vn tW @`TS@G a`[`rkr#@v~ v`h@L @h~ rX`r@Y yh. n#w`N shX` v` pK; SMvl v^w @Q\p`ln s`kCc`vN @n` wrM y. m@yN l[`v`q@yN h` mNn@yN pK;y l j`wNv`q@Y @gl r krN n.

1953 n#w`Nt a`c`Ry up`Žy q`ny @kn. a`c`Ry up`Žy s>h` o N "j`k sm`jv`q@Y k^k`Rk @Q\p`lny" nM sy n@yN k`\yt pW @kr# nW o@G q&`Wmk v#dkt h@Y m` y. @lN$D pK; @LkM @r`V@G {`wnyW smN @Rky a#rƒ.

r#Q[ p`R|kyN @ls q#n yN pmnK @n` v, pK;y l sAš&`Wmk v v#@dN St#N@G ag`kyN pv` St#N@G rhS @p`y @V y p‹r N d#h#@gn m @hln l. 1936 , n#w`N k^kRm a`ywn@Y @Sv@yN ph kl awr, l o jRmN X`;`v ugNvN 1935 upw lq wm yy @M a$N q aNwRgw wm p@L eq`@Vl mh g#m s>h` uWs`h k@L y.

@m`SkV }m n a#mW smg n`N@gN @B pl` a` sAmk jRm`vN aW adAvt g#@M LlK p#. awy gNvN. n#w`N y` N@N, "St#N wmN@G @Q\p`lnyt e@rv \KsMpNn @ls n# w# y @qn` m hx` y`. E v@G m o q#n@gn y` jRm@Y pr`jy o@G @Q\p`ln@Y &127;l bv."

1937 m# nyt @pr n n#w`N rgw krn l. jRmy, @s~yT sAgmy a`mny m a#rmW smg 1941 o@G > IWtW em irnm m aW , oN@G syy# yy @qV j`k r# plK N b`rgNn` l.

@m@ls a`rMX {`wn 1956 qKv` m y. n#w`N plv, kt ݿ r @gqrt qmn l, pv sy`@V @k`m` @vw @gn @Y y. o @vw eLl @c~qn`v @Y "Plvv` @`TSv` y`k`rkMvl @ym" y. o@G "v#r" vlt aNwRgw wvW @Q awr, ar# 15 jRmN @k`ST wr#n @fd@R;n@yN plv` h#mt aq`l @vnW kr# q y. o@G > kskS}`n@Y œm vhL k>rkt tmA kr lv yNwN kg#mt smW v` y.

ݿ r k>@R wmN aW adAvt g#m vWk`r y`vK @n` vn bv n#w`N av@b~[ kr gW@W y. oN@G k eLly @Y oK@w~bR Plv@Y y` @ls shX` vd`W k#p pK; s`m`kyN y. o wm pl ry @bq` hq` gW@W v`m p`R|v@Y @n~@y~V@G @w smgW p#r @b`L@;k@yK @mN m pK;@Y ih`s@y W, 1917 Plv@Y hq` kt q`nM m s>h` @y gWw` W (@pT@r~$D Plvv` k@V s`m`k@y @ls) @lN@G yt@W kMkr#vN@G pl a`N@V gmn`gmn a#m W Vl#R iv`@n`C @nVS sm. n#w`Nt @nVS ng# s pykt p o rm#@yN ivwt @gn @g`S @v wbn l.

E sm@Y oN@G rN y@qn`t @mN @n` v as`m`n& @ls n#w`N sh IW SNbRG @k@S @h~ k gW awr oN@G yy smg ek h. 1956 n#vw n#@gnr bRny bl` y`mt id N nW jRmN j`wNv` jnrj@Y oN pRn h'Wvyt ytW @k. St#N@G r k>r# b>v ek vcnyK @h~ kw` mt id @n` l#. n#@gnr jRm@Y >v#@mN vsr qhykt pv sh @s~yT sAgmy r#v` h#@mN pvW n#w`N SNbRG St#N@G Sw y` b>v wm aWq#m k`\ m a#r„@V y. l`GS k gW a@nK @b`@h~ @qn` @mN n#w`N qKn`Ak @Q\p`lny v#l> @n` gW awr wm` wr#n @Y qrn lq sm`jv` prm`qR\yN b> v wv rtW |v`sy r>v` @Y y.

@b`@h~ rN@G sh qNn` h‹nn ay@G shX`Wv@yN, 16 n p#v#W n#w`N@G upN n s`q@Y , o@G wr#n @Y sh o a`R sm@Y wm w@yN ukh` gWw` gmn @m@S sAKPwv s>hN k@L y.

"St#Nv`qy y mK q# av@b~[ kr g#m s>h` wr#nNt sh`y mt av\& . sm`jv`qy, y s`krnyN@gN h` mRqnyN@gN n#vw vrK qhS y awr, ey St#Nv` apw` ivW @k`t mN m kl y. @s~yT sAgm@Y wNyN q ey @l~ky r` krn lq blp$m q sm`jv`qy smN mn`k`r @h~ sMbN[yK vW n#w."

hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y j`w&Nwr k@V jRm` \`š`v vn sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;y q upN n b p#M eK k@L y. upN ny @v@vN @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y kRw^ mNdl@Y sX`p @DD @n~W N yvn lq pdy @m@ls y Ÿ

"o@BW, o@B y`y vn IW@GW w vn \wvR;ym wrny kr a#w. em k#lƒ shgw k`lpC@Cqv bl`@p`@r`W, prm`qR\yN, argl sh @Kqv`ckyN N o@B t cw`pq`n@Y aw&v\& aNwRgwy Rm`ny @k`t a#w. @l~k Q[ @qkK, f#STv`q@Y RgWvy sh St#Nv`q@Y p`v`M m#N ob vWv a#w. ob@G cwy sh ob@G |v`syN n#vw n#vwW vd`W m pK;nyNt lKv pv. e@hW, ob @n` ‹ avAkWvy q, @n` ‹ a[&`Wmy q, sm`jv`qy @v@vN @n` y# k#pM q smN 21 v# yv@S epWw hrh` gmN k@L y. qy`br n#w`N, 90 v @YW, ob ap y@qn`t m -- @|;@yN m wr#nyNt -- a`Sv`qy. a`qR\y."


e-mail.



Copyright 1998-99
World Socialist Web Site
All rights reserved