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߫kL @r~[@Y iqR\nyt e@rv m`KSv` j`w&Nwrv`qy
@g~ykrny b>v mh`c`Ry @c`@d`VS@G @Vcnyt rK

K MS
2000 @pbrv` 25

OS@y`@V sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y j`k @LkM h` @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y kRw^ mNdl@Y s`m`ky q K MS@G @k`tsK nN W @Y Nv# h` avs`n @k`ts @m pl kr.

@mm y 2000 jnv` 15 n @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y (iA@yN) pl krn lq mh`c`Ry @c`@d`VS N rw "y#tL s`kCc`vN oBbtŸ nv @l~k pRy`y r`[ m" nm# yt r. MS wn [@N|vr a`Rky b> h` @Q\n gnn`vk kRw^ y. @Mv`t m`KSv`qy h` p`qn@Y @g~ykrny sh @g~ykrn@Y v#qgWkm h` blp$MŸ m`KSv` wK@Sr#vK yNn a#lW y.

K MS@G @Y plv# @k`ts @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y Ahl aA\@Y m# 22 q` pl awr e @qv# @k`ts m# 26 q` ply.

Nv# @k`ts

mh`c`Ry @c`@d`VSt av @l~k @vl> sA[`nyt sh @l~k [@N|vr@Y aW a`ywnyNt r#Q[v vR[ny a# v&`p`ry "@mm a`Rk my r`[ m h` e a`ywn > q#m ilKk @k`t gw y."

@mm @Y L @k`tS @qN ap N p#h# krn lq p @c`@d`VSt @m aR}y vN@N vRwm`n a`Rk pRy`y K@p mW a`Rky y`Wmk @M l` j`k r`j&yt v# blyK @pr p#v vR[n avŽykt sm`jy a`p @gn y$mW y. ap@G mw@Hq @KNŒyv a#W@W @mm k |ny mw y.

@c`@d`VS@G @V\yt r#Q[v av[`rny kl v a#W@W a# \`l a`Rk @vnSM @qK m K@p m mN @p` jny` s>h` iqR\nyK h` y`m`RgyK vR[ny kl @n` h# bv y. kl v a#W@W p`qn@Y @g~ykrnyt aq`l a`Rk h` sm`y sNwN h` @g~y l pQ[yK v# Em @Vcn`Wmk pK;`vkt lK m y. et y, m`nv sm`j@Y @eh`k vR[n@Y S}`vr@yN Ev`@Y v#qgWkm vth`gw h#K@K. @vnW aNqmN q#Kv@h`W q#nt ey ­ a# sm`j h` a`Rk a`k^N@gN @g~ykrnyt lK p`qn m@Y y}`R} s`ry a#q g#m av\& y.

@g~y [@N|vr@Y aRqyK N, r`j&@Y a`Rk bl@Y h` S@@vX`v@Y a`rK;`v s>h` iLM m @kr$ t }m avS}`v @my @n` @V. ev# S}`vryN 1930 q\k@Y a# mh` avp`w@Y lbv qKnt l#.

em vkv`@V @mm a`S}`ny |@L;ny kl @y`N @`TS, m`nv sm`j@Y Rv vR[ny h` e k`\yt blp`n ymyN pM @k`t @gn @mm kr#n ipW k@L y.

"wm @eh`k n#G@m m`nv vRgy` am œm v&yN v#m X`Nd m`nyK lb`g#@M mhW al`;@yN @plx @V. sASk^k vR[n@Y @mm @X_k pqnm sm`j wNyN h` @Q\p`ln y`m`Rg wK@Sr# m s>h` g`dwm Rn`yky q sMp`qny kr.

y`Nk q&` K@@Y r#Wvkrny b> ymy qrNn` aR}X`ry h` sm`n v#qgWkmK œm &127;lq`w`v b> ymy m`nv sm`jy b> K@@Y qr` . m;& m`As XK;ny prqv` vhL X`vy jy g#m, vhL X`vy prqv` q`s X`vy jy g#m, q`s X`vy prqv` œmy jy g#m yn`y vn` yL p#n y sm`j m a@h~ y`@M $r y`m k`\nyK s aN vK @n` @V. œm &127;lq`w`v b> y`my y`Wmk vN@N s^ @Rš`vk @n` v prSpr @r~ a`k`rykt y; em y`my @g~y, m`nv q&`Wmk h` sm`jmy b`[kyN jy gN @tk @Vgy K;kv nAvN q, @tk h a#nMvN q wvW @tk vN h` p#QMvN q ey y`Wmk @V. es` y ih`sy l ewrM v&@RšyN qKnt l#@bN@N." (1)

j`k r`j& my nm# ykd s#Tty lt a`Rk sNwN @k@S @h~ b@lN r kr w#y y yn k#>mt @`TS t @Y ihw S}`vry mw ӵt` y. "nv w`K;nyt g#l@pn @S a`Rk h` sm`jy sb>w` @k@S sks` gN@N q yn g kRwv&y knt @prl` a#w. eyt p#r j`k rAg y h` p#r sm`j sb>w`vlt sln p p`qn bl@Vg @k@S kPp` kr gw h# q yNn b> |nyk Svr$pyK @q l#@B." (2)

@`TS s>hN kl @mm sNwN py vR; 50 l @n`y h# aNqmt vR[ny a#w. @M nN b j`k sAS}` ӵm g#n slk` blNn. ey 1930 gnNvl p#n n#mt ptN gWw` pm. eq [`n vs@yN m šj @wL kRm`Nw@y y. enW @M vn t Ev` p`qn@Y y Svr$pyN mw a`Žpw&y qr. m$w wK@Sr#vlt av aq @l~k@Y, \`lwm a`Rk Ekk 100N adK pmn aNwR j`k sAgw y. py vR;y l a# sm`gM Ek`bQ[M h` pvr` g#M Ll @H @k`t @gn b j`k sAS}` sAš&`v wv rtW v# a#w# y h#k. a`Rk S@@vX`vy j`k r`j&yt a`p X`r @M @c`@d`VS@G v#d@vl @SW m y`Wmk kl @n` h#KkK bv @mN pmnK v q p#h# @V.

aNwR j`k sAgwvl vR[ny h` @vnS a`Rk r$pvlt s`@PK;v Ev` qrn bl wWvy œm &127;lq`w`v@Y y`my ġ„ kr. @mm sA[`nvl n#Gm j`k sAgwy h` j`k r`j&y abv` y$m shN krNnK pmnK @n` @V; emN aW h` vd`W ihl a`Rk h` sm`j sA[`n a#m av[`rny @k@R.

q#vW s#lM m mw ӵt` sm`jv` a`Rk myK ӵ@M h#y`v b> oN@G mK n# @hl` q#M swv, qhS @vl> @p`lv`N N a# krn q^v` v&`lWvy ps`r# m @mw#n av\& @V. s`rwv gW kl aNwR j`k sAgwvl n#Gm ġ„ krN@N aN vK @n` v [@N|vr @vl> @p`l mN jw @k@rn n`\k` vnw` @H @k`t @gn a# vn ar`kw`v h` n`Sy [@N|vr sm`j sb>w` pQ[y l jy g#@M uWs`hy.

aNwR j`k sAgw l y`k`Wv@Y pqnm vN@N p`qn my q#vWv s#lM mt h` p`lnyt lK mt gNn` rNwr uWs`hy . sWwN m nM, smSwyK vs@yN gW kl sm`jy l sm`j sb>w` @vl> @p`@L ar`kw`v@Y a`Žpw&yt nv pvn wWvyK l bj`k sAS}`vl vR[nyt @M ar`kw`v abv` y` @n` h#k. E @vvt @M m@yN mgp$@qN@N [@N|vr @vl> @p`@L sm`jmy vs@yN n`\k` h` ar`k vnw` vd`W \`l m`nyN sARn @k`t uWsNn m y. ew vW œm &127;lq`w`v vR[ny krn rNwr v&`y`my h` a`Rk y`q`myN s@Cwk p`lnyt ytW @M uWs`hyK aNwR j`k sAgw N shN @k@rn bv sw& y.

@r`nLD eC. @k~S nm# @n`@bL w&`gl` aR}\`Sy` vR; 60kt ihw yn lq w qKn` yk "@vl> sm`g@M k# @p@nn lK;ny vN@N l yNny ytpW m y" yNn @pNv` . sAgw wm y`k`rkM pvWv` @gn yN@N @vl> @p`@L ;y p}y l y. avs`n h@Y @vl> @p`@L bl wWvyt sm`gm yt@W @V. enW "Ev` e@S krN@N a`k sh@y~g@yN smNw s`gryk k# g#@sn @v'r# ‡ @m." (3)

sAgwyN vR[ny s$m ayrym, enM. py \w vR;y avs`n@Y j`k Ek`Žk`r ӵ@M t aNwR j`k sm`gM ӵm qKv` q q#N aNwR j`k q#v#NwyN awr Ek`bQ[@M v&`p`ry qKv` q @vl> @p`@L a hSwy @vvt s#lM @M q&m`n hSwy a`@Q\ mt qr# uWs`hy smg b#Š a#w. a`Rk@Y y aA\ hrh` q#N p# yn w`K;k pRy`syN@gN @pNM @k@rN@N q @mm n#„r#v . Iy` @w`rr# w`K;n@Y arn eK sAgwyK l a`sNnwm p`qn y`vy vd`W s`k m pmnK @n` @V. em v$ym eLlvN@N iN oBbt @g`S vdvd`W spwmv @l~k@Y a@nK aNw@Y ӵ @n`@yW \`š` h` sm`gM awr pv` sMbNŽkrnyK a# m y.

@mm @eh`k S}`vr@yN bln kL @g~ykrnyt lK p`qn@Y aR}X`ry vN@N s#lMshgw sm`jv` a`RkyK vR[ny s>h` @X_k Rv @k`N@Q ey [@N|vr r`v l @m~r` y`m qh` q#Km y.

rtvL h` mh`Qp hrh` p`qn y`vN iw`m d` sSwr kr#n qKv` sA[`ny kl h# nM avk`\y h` k`ly hrh` X`Nd h` @Sv` s#pm wt v#rv Rny kl h# nM @l~k jnw`v@G av\&w`vN h` ymyN sr`y h# p @g~y a`Rky sA[`ny mt @X_k vs@yN h#y`v pvWn` bvt |nyK y @n` h#k. @k@yN q#Kv @h`W rn g#@M y`v@Y sARn wWvy s` s#lM shgw sm`jv` a`RkyK a# m SvX`v@yN m kl @n` h#KkK bvW es` p#vy h# ekm sm`j sA[`ny @vl> @p`l h` l`X g#m bvW v` qKvn "qhS @vl> @p`lv`N@G" wRky [@N|vr a`Rky l vR[nyN@gN `@y~kv X` @k@R.

E smgm, y a`Rk y`q`myN l`Xy lb` g#@M v$ymt ytpW kr a# [@N|vr sm`j sb>w` pQ[y l @M q#v#Nw w`K;k pRy`syN@G av`Ry &127;ly vN@N @p` jnw`v@G vn wWvyN@G v&snk`Wvy rNwr@yN m vd`W vR[ny mW y. eK aNwyk y @n` h# wrM [ny eKS mW aK aNw@Y KwX`vy v#mW, E smg en sm`j ;mw` smg S @V.

@M aRqyt s‹m pvW@N j`k a`Rk S@@vX`vy nm# g` m@n~r`j&yt pK;v @g~ykrny K@p m l @n` @V. s‹m pvN@N [@N|vr@Y yL p#ny sm`j sb>w` mN p#t bN[nvN p`qn bl@Vg qhS m l y. ev# v&`p`ryk sm`jy h` @Q\p`ln pqnm vN@N kMkr# pN@Y j`w&Nwr eKsWkm. nv w`K;nyN@G blp$m yt@W kMkr# pNy "a@h~ a#" bvt ipW @k@rn wRkyt r#Q[v a#Ww vs@yN m a#W@W em pNy prm h` s`@PK; yn @qa`k`r@yN m vd`W vR[ny a# bv .

t q\k pykt @pr kRm`Nw yNwN ӵt` kl`pvl aq p`qny @g~ykrny @H @k`t @gn kMkr# pNy yN y gnNvN vR[ny @B. [@N|vr vR[n@Y @pr ayr vl v`K @mN [np rtvl p#r œm r$p @b`@h`myK m a@h~ a#w. enW w`K;n@Y nv @s`y` g#M a`–wv a# a`Rk @vnSMvl &127;ly a#W@W m[&m pNy @ls slkn lq [@N|vr p`ln@Y S}`vrWvy Š r#l @ls y` kl jnghn@Y @b`@h~ @k`tS ym vs@yN m kMkr# pNyt a#q h#m .

@M y`vyN@G &127;ly nM m`nv ih`s@Y pl vrt @l`@V jny`@gN v# @k`ts wm œm \Ky h#r a@l mt vK n# kMkr#vN bvt pWm.

wm j`k a`Rk wyt a`@Vk @|; @vnSkM kvr a`k`r vW @l~k@Y s$m @Q\ykm v#d krn jny` @p` vs@yN aWqN@N ekm @g~y a`Rk myk y`k`Wvy @H @k`t @gn wm sm`j wWvyN k# yn bv y. Ek` @g`y [@N|vr a`Rk@Y vR[ny @H @k`t @gn @g~y vs@yN #vgw sm`jyK @g`d n# a#w. wmNt @|w j`k sMXvy mK vW eK awN [nvW S}ryN q a@nK aN plL @p` jnk`yq vs@yN #v`Nwgw sm`jyK @g`d n# @B.

q#ntmW @g~ykrn@Y blp$m sm`j k#lMvlt a#w. @mv# avS}` @qkK nM 1995 vR;@Y Ns@Y a# mh` v#d vRjn Ll h` iNy` Ek`Žp hR@w~ bl@yN phm. @Mv` @Y @g~y [@N|vr a`Rky l vR[ny vn aSr b@V sA` m[&@Y y.

1990 q\ky a#r„@N @vl> @p`@L jyhny h` sm`jv`q@Y pr`jy b> @Vqn W @m. jyhny kK @kk`n bv q#N p#h#v oP a#w. py q\ky l l&my h` a`Rk aRq gnn`vK vR[ny v qKn` l. @Mv` nM 1992 vR;@Y @r~y my ap`w my >v#m h` iiKv Sk#N@Ny` b#Avl aRq a#m, 1994 vR;@Y nykr @vl> @p`@L k#lm h` iKv 1994-95 vR; l @mK@k~vt a#mk` @d`lR yn 50k a`[`r s#pm h` 1997-98 vR; l @Vg@yN @g~ly l&my m@Y aRqyt N Iy` a`y` l& aRqy . eKsW jnpqy l mh` l`X a@PK;`@vN @k@rn yr# sm@PK;ny q [@N|vr m@Y @KNy S}`nvl q#N q#N nv l&my n` @g`n#m q apt q#k gw h# y.

y#tL p#v @l~k @vl> sA[`n (dBVO) S@M [`n [@N|vr blvN yM mkt p#mt q#r$ v$ym as`R}k v`K @mN @mm l&my M ذN gtm @vN pvn @g~y [@N|vr a`Rk@Y >v#m p#h#v shN kr. @mm > v#m @H @k`t @gn [@N|vr rtvl @mN m Iy` vn rtvl q brpwl sm`j argl jw v a#w. nW rn`Wmk |ny nM mn y`m`RgyK mw @mm v&`p`ry @g`dn#@g a#W q yNn y. @n`@yK a`k`r@Y p`R|y h` w |n mw @g`dn# iLM y`X`ryK i kr s#k y. em arglvlt iyt y$mt h# v a#W@W Ev` awr m @k`tS iw` p#h#v vR[ny @kr# j`w&Nwrv` iqR\nyK N @m@hyvn lq wrmt y.

20 vn yv@S @Q\p`ln p`dM hny kr g#m @m av\& @V. aN yLltm vd` 1917 vR;@Y r#y` Plv@Y SvX`vy h` &127;ly @eh`k vs@yN vth` g#mt av\& @V.

1870 vR;y t 1914 vR;y qKv` [@N|vr @g~ykrn@Y L avŽ@Y r#y` Plvy a#mt @@v;k a`Rk h` sm`y @k`N@Q s#k. r#y` Plvy vn` sm`jv` pqnM mw sm`jy n#vw s#kmt kMkr# pNy N gNn` lq }m uWs`hy . e n`ykWvy q#r$ [@N|vry }m vrt @prl` q#mt urN @lN h` @`TS@G @b`L@;K pK;y q kMkr#vN q a`Sv`w @YW @m@hy@NW, r#y`v l bly aLl` g#m eytm m` avsN arnK @n`v, E @vvt vd`W L a`yK enM, @l~k sm`jv` Plvy s`K;&`W @M eK yvrK y yn v#t@m.

sm`jy sm`jv` pqnmK mw n#vw s#k@M L v&`y`my avs`n@Y as`R}k y. Plvy @qkl` y; ey v&`Pwmt asmWm @H@vN St#Nv` l[r@Y Svr$py gW wrtk q^y L @k`t gW t j`kv` g`Wvyk n#G@M @k`N@Q a# .

pl@vN m sm`j j`wNv`qy N q pv St#Nv`qy h` n`v`qy N q Plvv` n`ykWvy mr` q#m mN iK vR;vl j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNyt r#Q[v a qr# phr eLl k@L y. m`KSv`q@Y h` @k`STv`q@Y n`m@yN a t apr`[ m q r#y` Plv@Y ݶm h` e n`ykWvy mr` q#m q @H @k`t @gn kMkr# pNy l imhW v&`lWvyK jw .

@m &127;ly @ls j`w&Nwr kMkr# v&`p`ry l a# n&`k h` @Q\p`lnmy ݶm @n`@yW j`kv` q^v`qyN -- sm`j sASkrnv`qy h` St#Nv`qy -- s>h` @k`N@Q s#k y. @g`N pqnM @k`t gW h` [@N|vr v&`p`r m`Ov`qy h` gLl`v`qyt sMbNŽw q^v`qyN q @M gn@y l` s#ly h#k.

@M y`vy kMkr# pNy l aq @Q\p`ln vs@yN aNqmNq X`vyK a# @k`t @B. e@S v q j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNy @Q\p`ln vs@yN q#vW mt q em pNyt kr# p#h# mt q n#vw v#r m`vwt g#mt q j`w&Nwr sm`jv` v&`p`r nRvny mt q av\& k @k`N@Q q#N m@vN pv. [@N|vr @g~ykrn@Y L ay@R &127;ly r#y` Plvy aN m py vR; 25 l @mm @eh`k y`vy wv wvW uWsNn @vWm emN nv Ply k#lƒvlt @k`N@Q Rm`ny @k@R.

ih`s@Y @r~q k#r@kN@N iw`mW @s@mN y smhr avS}`vl asNnt l#@bn ymn. @mm h#M mw pqnM mt uWs`h qrn [@N|vr avS}`v`qy kMkr# pN@Y Plvv` n`ykWvy @g`dn#@M Gg# arglykt r#Q[v nv m`vW, @k m`Rg, K;k "pl" ipW kr. a#w#M t @eh`k y`q`my iw`mW @s@mN iyt a#@qNnK @S @pn q ey s#mt m q^d y.

@p` jny`t i m`RgyK ipW mt h#y`vK a#w# pl kl y j`kv` y`m`Rg "g@d`lK mw g@d`lK" i @n` @k`t NnWv a#w.

20 v# yv@S q#v#Nw M l wm \Ky s`R}kv urg` b# ekm y`m`Rgy @y`N @`TS N ipW krn lv hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y j`w&Nwr k@V n`ykWvy yt@W aq n iyt @gn y lbn j`w&Nwr sm`jv`q@Y i q#Km. @M v#d@vl mw ӵt` j`w&Nwr kMkr# v&`p`ry n#vw q#vW m h` sA[`ny @M @KNS}`ny @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady v a#w# apt shk y. es` y ap mh`c`Ry @c`@d`VS@G q`ykWvy sN gN@N. ap k`lvkv`@V a@y~gyNt n m s>h` a#my rn`Wmk @Q\p`ln |n g#n s`kCc`vK a# mt emN id s#l a#w.

sthN

1. @y`N @`TS, j`kv`qy h` a`Rk wy y, 1933-34 vR;, 158 v# v.

2. @y`N @`TS, em, 159 v# v.

3. @r`nLD eC. @k~S, i@k`@n`k` 4 sm`g@M SvX`vy, 1937 vR;y, @hND@G @v~L ST s>hN @V. 249 v# v.

aq`l @vnW

@v~L ST aRqy h` m`y`vN @p` pTtMm
2000 12

߫kL @r~[@Y iqR\nyt e@rv m`KSv` j`w&Nwrv`qy
@g~ykrny b>v mh`c`Ry @c`@d`VS@G @Vcnyt rK - 2

2000
m# 26

@Q\p`ln iqR\nyK n#kN j`a h` @l~k b#A @r~ v&`p`ry an@R
2000
m# 22

߫kL @r~[@Y iqR\nyt e@rv m`KSv` j`w&Nwrv`qy
@g~ykrny b>v mh`c`Ry @c`@d`VS@G @Vcnyt rK - 1

2000
m# 22


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