Thousands of South African dairy food workers continue months-long strike amidst media blackout, joined by striking South African Sibanye-Stillwater gold miners; strikes continue throughout French healthcare system over low staffing levels and poor pay; Iraqi oil production graduates in Basra and workers in an oil field area demand jobs

Workers Struggles: Europe, Middle East & Africa

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Thousands of South African dairy food workers continue months-long strike amidst media blackout

The strike by 5,000 dairy workers at Clover Foods in South Africa, begun in November 2021, continues unabated, but information becomes harder to obtain with scant media coverage in South Africa. Reporting has largely focused on statements issued by the company and alleged violence from workers towards security guards.

It is, however, the General Industrial Workers’ Union of South Africa and Food and Allied Workers’ Union members who have faced continual violence on the picket lines. While Clover blamed strikers for the deaths of two security guards, the unions say evidence gathered by them contradicts the accusations.

Clover workers are also suffering extreme economic hardship through months without pay. One said, “We have had to rely on relatives to help us with food and money for our bills,” and another stated, “Food prices and transport costs are rising but [Clover] expects me to make do with a salary cut.”

The outcome of meetings facilitated by the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration two weeks ago between the Department of Employment and Labour, the unions and Clover management has yet to be reported by media outlets.

South African Sibanye-Stillwater gold miners begin strike for pay increase

Following a ballot last week, miners employed at Sibanye-Stillwater gold mines in South Africa walked out on Wednesday to demand a R1,000 monthly rise. The company, employing an estimated 31,000, responded with a lockout.

The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (AMCU) and UASA union members voted 62 percent in favour of a strike, while the mostly skilled Solidarity union members accepted the five percent wage offer. Solidarity workers were still locked out, however, and the union applied to the Labour Court for an interdict.

In the same week, the Sibanye-Stillwater group reported its 2021 earnings up 27 percent, from $1.8 billion to $2.5 billion. In 2021, 20 deaths were recorded in the multinational’s South African mines, up from nine in 2020 and six in 2019.

In 2019, AMCU sold out a five-month stoppage at Sibanye-Stillwater, accepting what it had previously called a “slave labour deal” signed off by the NUM and Solidarity.

Water workers in Eastern Cape, South Africa stop work in protests over pay and conditions

More than 300 water treatment workers at Amatola Water, Eastern Cape, South Africa walked out March 4, to protest the non-payment of a bonus thirteenth cheque, vacant posts left unfilled, withheld pensions and other grievances.

The South African Municipal Workers Union members left various treatment works and demonstrated at the water board headquarters in East London. They threaten to strike again in a week’s time if they do not receive a favourable response from the national Department of Water and Sanitation.

South African e-hailing drivers to stop work over exploitative conditions

E-hailing drivers who work for Uber, Bolt and other driving apps are set to strike for two days across South Africa on March 22, in protest over low app fares and high costs.

The drivers say they cannot afford to live as their income is increasingly affected by rising fuel prices, data costs, car maintenance, and a high commission structure.

Bus driver stoppage in Gauteng, South Africa causes disruption to services

Bus drivers at the Gautrain bus link in Sandton, Gauteng, South Africa held a wildcat strike on Tuesday, causing a suspension of service.

A National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa spokesperson said their members were protesting over a dispute with management at the depot.

Public sector on strike for seven days over pay in Niger State, Nigeria

State-employed workers in Niger State, Nigeria are taking seven days of strike action, starting March 7, to demand workers are paid full salaries.

The Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) called the “warning” strike while advising strikers to cooperate with the security forces. Such strikes were previously the target of state government clampdown.

An NLC statement said the warning strike is to press home demands including “payment of backlog of gratuity, 3rd party charge deduction of workers salary for Contributory Pension Scheme… National Housing Funds, and [union] check-off dues,” among others.

Nigerian government denounces university strike as “illegal,” calls on union umbrella body to step in

University lecturers who embarked on a month-long warning strike on February 14 were targeted by the government for launching an “illegal” strike.

The Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) members walked out over salaries, the delay in release of revitalisation funds for universities and the adoption of new payroll software.

The Minister of Labour and Employment, Chris Ngige demanded the Nigeria Labour Congress “”call them [the lecturers] to order, make them obey the law.” The strike was illegal, he said, because he was not properly “notified” by the ASUU, even though talks with the Ministry of Education had stalled. Ngige previously asserted the government had not got the money to meet lecturers' demands.

Stoppage by Kenyan health workers in two counties to demand payment of arrears

Kenyan health workers in the capital, Mombasa and the county of Taita Taveta declared a strike from March 7, to demand payment of two months’ salary arrears and five months’ remittances.

The health workers are members of the Kenya Medical Practitioners, Pharmacists and Dentists Union and five other unions.

The two county governments repeatedly delayed payment of salaries over a period of two years.

The Secretary of the Kenya National Union of Pharmaceutical Technology, Juma Abdallah, said no prescriptions will be issued at government health facilities in the strike areas until the issues are resolved.


Strikes continue throughout French healthcare system over low staffing levels and poor pay

Workers in the healthcare system in France continue a wave of walkouts and indefinite strikes over pay and working conditions, which have deteriorated throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

On Monday, administrative staff at the Yves-Le Foll hospital in Saint-Brieuc began an indefinite strike, announcing they had been understaffed for four years and staff continue to be reassigned elsewhere, according to Le Télégramme.

The General Confederation of Labour (CGT) and Force Ouvrière (FO) unions called for workers in care homes run by the private Orpéa group to walk out on Tuesday, and arranged a protest outside the company headquarters. Workers demand improvements in pay, working conditions, and better care for residents.

The strike follows the publication last month of the book Les Fossoyeurs (The Gravediggers) by investigative journalist Victor Castanet, documenting the mistreatment of residents caused by Orpéa’s cost-cutting and profit-oriented policies, France Bleu reported. A CGT representative told France Bleu that the book “highlights what we have been denouncing for years,” and that care home workers “suffer enormously because they are forced to be accomplices in spite of themselves, hence our fight to denounce the situation.”

Transport workers strike against restructuring in Lyon, France

On Thursday, workers at TCL, the public transport network for the French city of Lyon, held a one-day strike against plans to restructure the network.

According to Lyon Mag, drivers on the metro and funicular lines stopped work after 10pm, with one tram line stopped completely and two others partially closed. Many bus routes either operated at reduced frequency or were cancelled completely.

The restructuring of TCL would divide the different operations into separate companies and open up each to new operators. Currently the whole network is operated by Keolis, which is 70 percent-owned by the French state. TCL drivers held a one-day strike in February against the plans. This followed numerous strikes in 2021 against unsafe working conditions, which began when a gun was fired at a bus returning to the depot in September.

Slovenian teachers hold widespread strikes over pay

On Wednesday, teachers throughout Slovenia joined a strike called by the Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture of Slovenia (SVIZ) after the government ignored the union’s pay demands.

According to STA, nearly 40,000 workers joined the strike, from primary, secondary and nursery schools, although SVIZ exempted day care services from the strike. The government flatly refused to negotiate a pay rise, citing its commitment not to increase public spending.

Workers in day-care centres across Germany join strike on International Women’s Day

Germany’s United Services Union (Verdi) called for workers in day-care centres and other public services to join a one-day strike to coincide with International Women’s Day on Tuesday.

According to the Süddeutsche Zeitung, there has been no new collective agreement for these 330,000 workers, almost all women, since the start of the pandemic, when collective bargaining was suspended. Verdi announced that 22,000 workers joined the stoppage nationwide.

Metalworkers in Asturias, Spain continue strikes against contract signed by most unions

Metalworkers in the Spanish principality of Asturias walked out for two hours on Wednesday, and again on Thursday and Friday, to oppose job cuts at multinational steel company ArcelorMittal, following numerous other partial and one-day stoppages since February.

Europa Press reported that workers also protested on Wednesday in front of the Asturian parliament building in the provincial capital Oviedo. Further strikes are planned for eight more days throughout March.

They are demanding job security from the upcoming decarbonisation plan, which threatens 960 jobs, as well as improved conditions for workers on temporary contracts and the enforcing of “relief contracts” agreed for older workers in the last collective agreement. Stoppages were called by the Workers’ Commissions (CCOO) and the Left-wing Union Current (CSI), after most unions at the company reached a deal on these issues. CCOO and CSI members voted again to approve the strikes at the start of February.

Cleaning strikes called off by Spanish unions in A Coruña and Cádiz

Waste collection and street cleaning workers in two Spanish cities returned to work this Monday, ending indefinite strikes.

In the Andalusian city of El Puerto de Santa María, workers began an indefinite stoppage on February 24, demanding a new collective agreement which deals with widespread casual employment. On Sunday, Europa Press reported that the city council was planning to declare a health emergency due to the waste collection strike, enabling extra strike-breaking measures, including hiring a private “extraordinary shock service” of scabs. The next day, the works council announced it had signed a new agreement approved in a vote of members and ended the strike.

In the northern city of A Coruña, waste collection workers also began an indefinite strike on March 4, after the works council denounced the contractor PreZero-Cespa for failing to maintain and replace vehicles. The mayor had already declared a health emergency on February 28, due to disruptions in the service. Numerous vehicles were vandalised and two set on fire, and the company complained that “numerous workers” expressed “unwillingness” to work under the present conditions. The works council announced on Monday it would suspend the strike until the health emergency was declared over by the local government.

Dutch metalworkers continue warning strikes in collective bargaining dispute

Dutch metalworkers continued warning strikes this week, as part of a long-running dispute over the collective agreement covering smaller companies in the sector, which employs around 320,000 workers.

In the western province of Zeeland, workers walked out for 24 hours on Thursday, and joined protests to demand a five percent pay increase, although inflation in the Netherlands is currently 6.2 percent. The employers’ latest pay offer was only 1.4 percent. The Algemeen Dagblad reported that installation engineers employed by companies in the sector also walked out on Monday and Tuesday.

Italian workers oppose mass job cuts at insurance company Verti

On Tuesday, workers at the insurance company Verti held a one-day strike to oppose plans to cut 325 jobs in Italy.

According to ANSA, the unions representing workers at Verti called the stoppage and a protest outside the company headquarters in Milan following the announcement of a restructuring plan four months ago. Verti is owned by the Spanish multinational insurance group MAPFRE, whose share price rose 13 percent between December 2020 and December 2021.

Hungarian train drivers’ union calls off strike over pay, citing war

On Wednesday, the Drivers’ Union (MOSZ) called off a strike at the Hungarian State Railways (MÁV) company, where it represents around 14,000 workers.

MOSZ had called the strike for this Thursday to demand a pay rise, following a pay freeze last year, 24.hu reported. At the last minute, the union put out a statement announcing the strike was cancelled “with a view to providing humanitarian assistance” as a result of the war in neighbouring Ukraine. Inflation for 2021 was 5.1 percent, and by February 2022 it had risen to 8.3 percent.

Further strike by train conductors at TransPennine Express in England over pay

Train conductors at TransPennine Express (TPE), which runs services in the north of England, held the last of four 24-hour scheduled strikes on Sunday. Strikes took place the previous three Sundays.

The Rail, Maritime and Transport (RMT) union members are calling for an end to the pay gap between them and other TPE workers. The dispute also concerns a new agreement covering rest days and Sunday working. The agreement covers the use of new technology for payment. The TPE conductors are calling for a 2p payment per transaction for checking tickets via new technology, in line with conductors working for Northern Trains who get this payment.

According to the RMT, TPE just paid out £30 million in dividends to TPE shareholders and is seeking permission to pay out a further £33 million.

The train conductors voted by an 85 percent majority to strike.

Further strike by UK Churchill Group rail cleaners over pay and conditions

Following a 24-hour strike February 23 and protest outside the UK parliament, rail cleaners employed by the Churchill Group will begin a 48-hour strike beginning midnight on Saturday. They are calling for improved pay and working conditions.

The hundreds of RMT members work for Churchill to clean trains and stations on behalf of Govia Thameslink Railway, HS1, Southeastern Railway and Eurostar in the southeast of England. They are demanding £15 an hour, along with sick pay and travel benefits currently denied to outsourced workers.

Around 1,000 outsourced cleaners were balloted by the RMT, returning a clear call for action—two of the ballots registering a 100 percent strike vote. The cleaners are paid £8.91 per hour, far less than in-house cleaners who perform the same role. Churchill refused to raise wages, despite profits of £11.1 million last year and dividends of £12 million to its parent company and £3.8 million to company directors.

The RMT opposes joint action between outsourced cleaners and in-house workers, and participates in the Rail Industry Recovery Group, which plans £2 billion cuts a year at the expense of jobs and conditions.

Further strike planned by UK train cleaners on Avanti West Coast trains over pay

UK train cleaners working for Atalian Servest Limited will hold a 48-hour strike beginning 7.30pm Thursday. It follows two previous 48-hour strikes, in January and in February.

The RMT union members are responsible for cleaning Avanti West Coast trains. They demand to be paid £9.90 an hour. Atalian offered a 2p an hour increase. Picket lines were held along the route taken by West Coast trains, including Carlisle, Liverpool, Manchester and Wembley in north London, in the previous strikes.

Refuse workers in Barrow, UK strike over pay

UK refuse workers in Barrow began a three-day strike Wednesday, with a further three-day stoppage due March 16-18.

The GMB members at FCC Environment, responsible for collecting refuse from around 33,000 homes in Barrow, voted unanimously to walk out. They rejected a pay offer from FCC which in real terms represented a pay cut.

Strike of UK refuse workers in Wiltshire goes ahead after workers reject improved pay offer

A two-week strike by around 70 UK refuse operatives, loaders and drivers working for Hills Waste Solutions providing refuse collection on behalf of Wiltshire County Council, went ahead Monday.

Initially the stoppage was due to start February 28, but the GMB suspended the strike after Hills made a new pay offer. However, the workers rejected the new offer in a ballot.

The workers are responsible for bin collection at around a quarter of a million homes in Calne, Salisbury and Trowbridge. They oppose a two percent pay offer, a real-terms pay cut. They voted by a 98 percent majority on an 85 percent turnout to walk out.

Strike of workers at steam turbine manufacturer in Rugby, UK over pay and conditions continues

Strikes by around 75 UK workers at GE Steam Power, electric turbine manufacturer and repairer in Rugby are continuing, the latest one held on Monday.

The Unite union members are scheduled to hold a further eight days of stoppages up to May 2. Their employer refuses to negotiate pay rates for flexible working, and workers are expected to adopt new roles for no extra pay.

Education Welfare Officers in Northern Ireland begin 16-day strike over pay parity

Around 130 education welfare officers began a 16-day strike on Tuesday.

The Northern Ireland Public Service Alliance members, who are fully qualified social workers, are seeking parity of pay with colleagues employed by Health and Care Trusts. On average they are paid around £5,000 a year less.

Strike by teachers at Bedlington Academy school, UK over workloads

Over 20 UK teachers at Bedlington Academy in Northumberland, run by the North East Learning Trust, began a programme of 15 days of strikes on Tuesday.

The NASUWT members are protesting excessive workloads and the failure of management to tackle problems of pupils’ behaviour. The teachers will strike each Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday weekly until April 7.

Further walkouts planned by UK university academic staff

Following 10 days of strikes at nearly 70 higher education institutions across the UK, a further five days of strikes are to take place March 21-25, affecting 39 universities. From March 28 to April 1, a strike will affect 29 universities.

Among the universities taking part in first tranche of renewed strikes are Cambridge, Durham, Glasgow, Leeds, Newcastle and Salford.

The University and College Union (UCU) members are fighting attempts by university management to cut their already devalued pensions by another 35 percent, attacks on pay and working conditions, and casualisation. The cuts are on top of £240,000 already lost from the average lecturer’s retirement income over the past decade.

The Universities Superannuation Scheme’s (USS) joint negotiating committee (JNC) recently imposed massive attacks on pensions, meaning workers in the higher education sector losing tens of thousands of pounds. The JNC —comprising five employers’ representatives, five from the UCU and a chair—was set up in 2018 and presented by the union as a concession from the employers to justify the 2018 pensions dispute sellout.

University staff at London university ballot over threat to withhold pay of academic staff

Academic staff at Queen Mary, University of London (QML) are balloting for strike action. They oppose threats by the university to deduct 100 percent of their wages for carrying out industrial action short of striking. They refuse to reschedule classes, cancelled because the UCU members took part in the recent national strikes over pay and pensions.

The ballot closes on March 21. Other universities including Bristol and Newcastle threatened similar action but only QML has confirmed it is to go ahead with the measures.

Administration and support staff at five London universities ballot over pay claim

Administration and support staff at five universities in the UK capital are balloting for strike action in opposition to a 1.5 percent pay rise for 2021/22 offered by the employers’ group, the University and College Employers Association.

The five universities are City University of London, Kings College, the Royal College of Arts, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College and University College of London.

The ballot of Unite union members closes on April 8.

Arriva bus drivers in London set to strike over pay

Around 1,000 bus drivers working for Arriva in the UK capital will hold a 24-hour strike on March 21, followed by a 48-hour strike March 28 and possible additional strikes.

The Unite union members are opposed to a 1.5 percent pay offer. The drivers are based at depots in Brixton, Croydon, Norwood and Thornton Heath. Arriva operates routes covering south and central London.

Unite calls off strike by UK bus drivers working for Stagecoach West after new pay offer

A strike by around 380 bus drivers at Stagecoach West in England, who voted overwhelmingly to walk out Thursday over low pay, was called off by the Unite union. Many workers are on less than £11 an hour.

Stagecoach made a new pay offer, which Unite described as worth 12 percent for 2021 and 2022.

The drivers are based at depots in Bristol, Cheltenham, Colway, Gloucester, Ross-on-Wye and Stroud and Swindon.

Council workers in Glasgow, Scotland vote for industrial action over broken promises on equal pay

Around 9,000 staff at Glasgow City council, Scotland voted in a ballot to take industrial action over the council’s broken promises over equal pay. The Unison union members voted by a 95 percent majority on a turnout of 52.5 percent.

In 2018, several thousand Glasgow city council workers, predominantly women, walked out, demanding to be paid in line with male workers carrying out equivalent roles. The council agreed to recompense the workers, but there have been major delays in ending the dispute. The settlement figure was around £500 million

Refuse lorry drivers in Solihull, UK vote to strike over pay

Bin lorry drivers working on the Amey waste collection contract for Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council, in the Midlands, England have voted to strike.

The GMB union members rejected a 4.21 percent pay offer from the company and are seeking a higher offer. The GMB has not yet announced when the stoppage will begin.

Recycling and refuse workers in North Somerset, UK, vote to walk out over pay

Around 100 UK refuse and recycling workers at the North Somerset Environment Company have voted for industrial action.

The GMB members turned down a derisory 1.75 percent pay offer. The company, wholly owned by North Somerset council, serves 88,000 homes. A GMB press release announcing the result did not give any dates for stoppages, saying the union would discuss with its members. It declared its willingness to have discussions with the council to avoid a strike.

Refuse workers in Northampton, UK ballot after rejecting pay offer

Around 70 UK refuse collection workers employed by Veolia to provide services to around 95,000 houses on behalf of Northampton council have rejected a 2.5 percent offer from the company.

The GMB members will now ballot for possible industrial action. The GMB has not yet announced dates for a ballot.

Strike date announced of confectionery workers at factory in York, UK over pay and conditions

UK workers at Fox’s sweet factory in York will begin stoppages on March 21. Fox makes well-known brands including Fox’s Glacier Mints, Mint Humbugs and Poppets. The parent company is Irish-based multinational Valeo Foods.

The GMB members are protesting a below-inflation pay offer. Also, the lowest paid workers were excluded from a one-off payment, others stand to lose two days leave, and the company gave notice to end collective bargaining at the site.

The workers twice rejected the pay offer from Fox, who have refused to improve it despite making an improved offer to employees at its Pontefract site.

Strike vote by British Council staff

Staff working for the UK government’s international culture and education body, the British Council, voted by a 73 percent majority to strike. The turnout was over the legal 50 percent limit.

The Public and Commercial Services (PCS) members are opposed to plans to cut jobs, restructure the service and outsource some parts of the organisation. The PCS has not called for industrial action but for further negotiations, stating that stoppages would be a last resort.

Drink delivery workers at UK firm ballot over payroll issues

Around 1,700 UK beer and alcoholic drink workers employed by logistics firm GXO are balloting over long-standing issues with the payroll system. The ballot closes March 18.

The Unite union members voted by a 99 percent majority in a consultative ballot late last year for an industrial action ballot. Problems with a new payroll system led to workers’ wages being paid late, along with underpayments of wages, pensions and holiday pay entitlement. The workers are responsible for deliveries to around 20,000 outlets. GXO has depots in Coventry, Derby, Livingston, Manchester, Normanton and Thatcham.

Gas distribution workers at UK firm to ballot after rejecting below-inflation pay offer

Around 2,000 UK workers employed by natural gas distribution firm, Cadent have rejected a four percent pay offer. Cadet, which made a £900 million operating profit last year, is the largest of the four major gas distribution companies.

The GMB members will now ballot for industrial action, but the union has yet to announce the date.

Ancillary workers at Croydon, UK hospital ballot for strike action over pay

Workers employed by outsourcing company G4S to provide domestic and portering services at Croydon hospital in south London are balloting over pay.

The GMB members are protesting G4S’s refusal to pay to pay the London Living Wage or occupational sick pay. The ballot closes March 18.

A protest organised by GMB was held outside the hospital on January 31, against G4S’s ending of occupational sick pay for workers testing positive for COVID-19. Without sick pay, workers are forced to come into work with COVID-19 symptoms.

Ballot of UK post office workers in opposition to pay freeze begins

The Communication Workers Union (CWU) began balloting 1,400 members working for the Post Office Ltd on Wednesday. The employer imposed a pay freeze. The workers are based in crown post offices and in administration roles.

UK government education standards body workers to ballot over in-person attendance order

UK workers employed by the Office for Standards in Education and Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted) are to ballot from March 15 until April 5.

The PCS union members are protesting a requirement by Ofsted that its workers attend in-person at least three days a week, restricting their ability to work from home.

Unite suspends walkout of airline food delivery workers at Heathrow airport, London after new pay offer

The Unite union suspended the walkout of HGV delivery drivers working for aviation catering firm DO & CO at London’s Heathrow airport, scheduled for March 4 and 5.

The drivers are responsible for delivering food, mainly to British Airways, for pilots and cabin crew. They voted by a 94 percent majority for the stoppage. The suspension came after DO & CO made a new pay offer.

According to Unite, the deal will offer drivers who were TUPE’d (transferred to the company in 2020) a six percent rise in basic pay. The basic pay of drivers already working for the DO & CO will rise to £33,000. Unite says this will mean all drivers getting a just under 14 percent rise by April 1. Additionally, the company accorded Unite negotiating rights. The ballot on the pay offer closes Friday.

Protest by ancillary workers outside Lewisham, UK hospital over derisory pay offer

Workers employed by Danish-based outsourcer ISS as cleaners, hostess staff and porters at Lewisham hospital in southeast London protested outside the hospital on Monday.

The GMB members oppose a 20p an hour offer from the company. ISS took on the contract in 2020 and claimed to pay the living wage. However, the workers are paid below the current London Living Wage of £11.05 an hour.

Middle East

Protests over lack of jobs in southern Iraq hold up oil production

For the past month, protests have been taking place in southern Iraq over the lack of jobs. They have included tribal protests outside the Dhi Qar oilfield in the south of Iraq, which held up oil production. The protestors are demanding an end to unemployment. Together with essential maintenance work, the protests cut Iraqi oil output by around 10 percent.

Last week, protests in Basra by oil department university graduates, also calling for jobs, closed the main highway between Basra and Baghdad. The protestors were dispersed by security forces firing live rounds in the air and wielding batons.

Strike by public sector workers in Kurdistan area of Iraq

On Sunday, public sector workers in Kurdistan, including medical staff, teachers and refuse collectors, went on strike over wage arrears. They accuse the Kurdistan Regional Government of failing to pay public servants, despite its income from oil sales increasing due to the crisis over war in Ukraine. Medical staff also accuse the government of not providing sufficient medical equipment.

Strike of oil workers in Iranian city of Abadan over wage arrears

Oil workers employed by the Limuchi and Secaf company at the Abadan oil refinery went on strike Sunday and Monday. They were protesting the decision by the company to delay payment of wages for December, February and March until the beginning of April.

Strike of Lebanese telecom workers calling for pay increase

Tuesday saw a strike of Lebanese telecom workers employed by the operator Ogero. Ogero is the main provider of internet and mobile phone networks in Lebanon. They want a pay increase.

Lebanon is experiencing a major financial crisis in which the currency lost 90 percent of its value, with 80 percent of the population living below the poverty line, and over a third in extreme poverty.

Walk out by Israeli bus drivers over staff shortage

Bus drivers across Israel walked out on Wednesday, protesting the shortage of drivers which is putting them under pressure. Services across the country were reduced, especially in Haifa, Jerusalem, and other major cities.

Three-day strike of Moroccan truck drivers over rising fuel prices

A three-day strike of truck drivers in Morocco began on Monday. Around three-quarters of all truck drivers are estimated to have taken part in stoppages. They were protesting the rapidly rising cost of fuel spurred by the Ukrainian crisis. They called for a ceiling on fuel prices and profit margins of distributors.